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Resolving Contradictions

Copyright 2012, 2014, 2017 by Collaborative Authors, All rights reserved 

This book is the work of a collaborative group. 

Contributors
Larry Ball (Primary Author)
David Troness
Kartik Ariyur
Jason Huang
Steve Hickman
Petr Krupansky
Larry Miller

Editors
Erika Ball
Larry Ball
David Troness
Paul Dwyer
Robert Lang

Illustrators
Larry Ball
David Troness

Other Authors, Theoreticians, Practitioners Whose Writings or Teachings have Impacted This Work
Genrich Altshuller
Ellen Domb
Roni Horowitz
John Terninko
Alla Zusman
Boris Zlotin
Lev Shulyak
Yuri Salamatov
Victor Fey
Eugene Rivin
Darrell Mann
Sergei Ikovenko
Simon Litvin
Peter Ulan
Lane Desborough
Clayton Christensen
Renee Mauborgne
Kim Chan

Much of the material for this book was inspired by the thought leaders referenced.  The original intent was to codify the insights of these thought leaders, but the exercise of codification ultimately led to the synthesis of other experimental processes.  This is because codification required recognizing patterns of similarity of tools.  Once this was achieved, the various tools were grouped with key decisions.  Decisions require and create information which flows to the next decisions.  Patterns and gaps became visible during this formative process.  Experimental methods were inserted into the gaps.   The proof of these experimental methods is whether they actually help the reader to identify product or process characteristics that will delight the market.

10/31/17

The skill of resolving contradictions is one of the most useful and fundamental aspects of TRIZ because it greatly expands the solution space for the problem solver.  It allows us to improve offering features without making other features worse.  At the heart of most contradictions is a "knob"(element attribute) that must have two settings.  For instance, let us consider a vehicle that needs to have a small volume in order to create low drag and a large volume to carry lots of cargo.  This appears to be physically impossible, yet we will try very hard to make this happen.

Common Approaches for Dealing with Contradictions
There are several approaches to dealing with contradictions:

1)  Discount one or both of the conflicting properties.  This is a common approach used in theological, political, negotiation or historical settings.  This approach can be referred to as the ostrich approach or throwing the hand grenade back over the wall.  Either we do not face the problem or we force someone else to deal with the problem.  In the case of the vehicle we would either deny that the drag existed or we would deny that the volume was too small. As mentioned, this approach is less common in the world of physics, but it can happen in many other fields.  For this text, we will not discount either conflicting property as invalid; but rather assume that we are only dealing with situations where the requirements for both properties are valid because we have thoroughly analyzed the situation.

2)  Compromise somewhere between both conflicting properties.  This is a standard approach taught in most schools and widely adopted throughout industry for resolving problems of all genre.  The compromise "solution" for the vehicle would be to make the volume larger but not “too large”. The problem with this thinking is that we now guarantee risk.  If we are building the vehicle for public sale, we may find that the cost of operation is too high for some customers and the volume too low for others.   In order to perform an artful compromise a lot of data needs to be collected and models built.  This can be time consuming. In addition, it is likely that this risky situation will be perpetuated in future generations.  Due to these drawbacks, we will not be applying this approach in this text.

3) Deliver both properties to the required degree by resolving the contradiction.  This is an unusual approach that can apply to problems of all types.  In the case of the vehicle, we will attempt to make the volume large and small.  When we learn how to resolve contradictions, we will find that there are a lot more knobs that we can consider turning to solve problems.  This skill is liberating to problem solvers who find that the solution space is much larger than they supposed.

4) Allow improvement by turning one knob and then compensate for what gets worse by turning another knob.  This is also a valid approach which we will call “compensation”.  This approach can also be a very powerful method for resolving contradictions.  We will make the volume large but somehow find another knob to turn to decrease the vehicle drag. Once again, this method can solve a problem with a solution that will last a long time and can provide very surprising solutions.

A Review of How we Form Contradictions
Recall that we first looked at contradictions while we were performing causal analysis.  Let us consider the situation of a common garden rake.  When the rake is used to collect loose debris such as rocks and loose weeds over an uneven surface, a problem arises: The rake “leaks” some of the debris that is to be collected under the tines and several strokes are required to fully collect the debris.  The dependent variable that we want to improve is “Debris Leakage”.  Let us now ask what the debris leakage is a function of.

Debris Leakage = f (Tine Flexibility, Ground Stiffness, Tine Spacing...)

01 Debris Leakage is Excessive

(Note that we are not considering all of the possible independent variables).  This can also be shown pictorially with a causal analysis diagram.  (Note that we are not showing functions at this point but only the object attributes or knobs.)

Now, let us improve the situation by turning one of the knobs: Tine Flexibility.  (We show this by creating another box with the conflicting knob setting).  Flexible tines follow the contour of the earth and collect much more effectively.

Unfortunately, other things get worse.  It is more difficult to extract embedded debris from the soil and to move soil around (other functions of the rake).  This difficulty can by represented by the following diagram.  (For the sake of simplicity we are only considering debris extraction).

02 Tine Flexibility is Stiff and Flexible 2

The contradiction can now be stated: “The rake tines need to be flexible in order to collect and they need to be rigid in order to extract embedded debris from the ground”. Had we chosen to decrease Tine Spacing, as shown below, we would have found that the rake now collects too much useful small debris (mulch) that would ordinarily be left behind.

03 Tine Spacing is Wide and Narrow

Thus we see that the conradiction that we will consider depends upon which knob we try to turn to fix the problem.  In the first case, we chose tine flexibility and got one contradiction.  In the second case, we chose tine spacing and got another.

Conditions where it is More Difficult to State a Contradiction
A properly stated contradiction may not include something that gets worse.  Suppose that we had chosen the ground shape as the knob to turn.  In this case it would be clumsy and artificial to identify something that gets worse if we make the ground flat.  Instead it is better to conclude that the ground shape comes in many different “flavors” other than flat. 

04 Ground Shape is Irregular and Flat 2

The full contradiction can be stated, “in order to improve Debris Leakage, the Ground Shape needs to be flat, but since the ground shape comes in many different forms, it needs to be Irregular”.  Many contradictions arise because a knob only comes in one “flavor”.  While this fact does not stop us from resolving the contradiction, it does serve to show that it is not always practical to state something else that becomes worse.

A second example of a contradiction, which does not include something else getting worse, is when we try to turn an “outcome knob” without consideration for the inputs.   In other words, we want to improve a dependent variable without regard for the independent variables or knobs that cause the problem.  The contradiction can be stated “the Debris Leakage must be excessive because the ground is irregular, the tine spacing is wide and the ground is irregularly shaped.The Debris Leakage must be minimal because that is what we want to improve”. “The Debris Leakage must be excessive and minimal”.  To the untrained eye, contradictions involving output knobs seem like unlikely candidates to try to resolve.  In fact, it is sometimes possible to resolve these contradictions with very satisfying solutions.

05 Debris Leakage is Excessive and Minimal

In Summary, contradictions come in several different forms.  Some are unexpected yet very important and allow for unusual solutions after being properly stated.

The Pile Driving Example
Consider driving piles off-shore to be used to support structures such as restaurants and shops.  Driving the piles becomes problematic because of the amount of expensive equipment that is used and the time it takes to drive the piles.  There are many parameters that can be changed to make the piles drive faster.  (See TRIZ Power Tools--Discovering Cause for examples of the parameters).  For illustration of resolving contradictions we will be considering the sharpness of the pile.  It is obvious from experience that a sharper pile will drive faster than a blunt pile.  Unfortunately, the weight of the structures built on the piles will drive the piles further under the condition of an earthquake.  So, the pile needs to be sharp in order to be driven more rapidly and it needs to be blunt in order for the piles not to sink under an earthquake load.  This particular contradiction example is quite useful due to the number of different types of solutions that are possible.  This will help to explain why this example is used throughout the following text.

Why not use the Contradiction Matrix?
In the early years of TRIZ development, Genrich Altshuller created what is called a Contradiction Matrix.  The matrix was designed to help the problem solver resolve contradictions.  It was created by meticulous study of “strong” patents.  Altshuller noted the apparent methods of resolving difficult contradictions and categorized them into 40 Inventive Principles.  By noting the type of problem that was solved and the number of times that a particular resolution principle was employed, it was possible to create a table of the “best” methods for resolving these contradictions.  The table is used by choosing a variable that must be improved on one table axis and then finding the variable that gets worse on the second axis of the table.  This defines a row and column of the table.  At the intersection lies a cell containing the most common principles used to resolve this particular contradiction. 

There has been a great deal of debate concerning the need for the Contradiction Matrix.  Avid users of the matrix can often point to successful solution concepts generated by the use of the matrix. It is clear that it is possible to successfully use the Contradiction Matrix.  It represents a quantum improvement over standard brainstorming methods.  It is simple and compact.  The user feels very creative while using it.  On the other hand, many TRIZ specialists  have abandoned the matrix in favor of using Separation Principles. 

At the risk of sounding incomplete, we will not be using the Contradiction Matrix in this text.  The main reason for this is that using Separation Principles helps enhance visualization of the solution.  In order to illustrate why this is important, let’s see what happens if we use the Contradiction Matrix in the previously mentioned pile driving example.  I want to improve the driving speed without sacrificing the supporting capability of the pile.  Let’s say that I go to the Contradiction Matrix and it is suggested that I consider the principle of Local Quality[1] (non-uniform in space).  Should I apply this principle to the pile driver, the ground or the pile?  Once I decide which object to consider, I am left to consider what feature to make non-uniform? The problem solver must make assumptions and drive forward.   Assumptions can limit our options, especially if we only consider what we have considered before.

Now, let’s consider the use of Separation Principles.  First, we begin with a carefully constructed contradiction: we need the pile to be sharp in order to drive more easily and we need it to be blunt in order to support well.  Notice that we have identified both the object (the pile) and the attribute (tip shape) to consider.  The Separation Principles provide a large number of methods for resolving this contradiction.  If we pick the Separation Principle of Separation in Space and the sub principle of “Non-Uniform”, we can directly visualize a single pile that is sharp in one location and blunt in another.  For instance, the tip can be sharp, but further up the pile, it can have a blunt feature protruding.  The ability to visualize a solution is actually enhanced when we make the problem “harder” by saying that the solution requires the extreme properties of “sharp” and “blunt”.

New Separation Principles
Several new categories of Separation Principles are introduced which are unique and distinct from Separation in Space, Separation in Time and Separation between the Parts and the Whole.  (These three are the separation principles practiced in mainstream TRIZ).

Separate Gradually.  There are cases where there is no definitive moment in time where an object or system has different properties.  These properties can creep gradually until the full transformation is complete.

Separation by Direction: at the same moment in time and in the same space, a piece of sheet metal can be flexible in one direction and stiff in another.

Separation by Perspective:  separation occurs because of unique ways of looking at the situation.  An object may be small, but look large under a microscope.

Separation by Frame of Reference:  separation occurs because we consider different frames of reference for each of the conflicting properties.  At the same moment in time and in the same space, an element can be following a curved or a straight path, depending on the frame of reference.

Separation by Response of Fields:  at the same moment and in the same space, glass can be transparent to visual light and opaque to infrared light.

Separation between Substance and Field:  at the same moment and in the same space, the field coils of a motor can be stationary while its field is moving.

The author believes that there may yet be other groups which are distinct from time, space and separation between the parts and the whole.

When it is Difficult to use a Separation Principle
When it is difficult to use a separation principle, don't give up too easily.  The author has found many instances where a little extra thought makes a lot of difference.  Remember that each separation principle is a general model solution that we now need to create a specific solution from.  Carefully read and understand the Instructions, diagrams and examples are given with each method. 

One of the more powerful tools are the A and B diagrams shown at the beginning of each method.  Insert the conflicting words for the A and B symbols to help visualize the model solution.

06 How to use the Little Blocks

There are often two ways that the diagrams can be written, try both ways as shown.  An example from Separation in Time is shown above.  

It is common that a problem solver may become confused when trying to apply the A & B diagrams.  One way around this problem is to simply brainstorm a variety of objects that use the method and have the contradictory properties regardless of whether they resolve the specific contradiction.  This line of reasoning will sometimes clear the path to using the method.  For example, suppose that I need an element to be flexible and stiff.  One suggestion from separation in time is that the object be its own natural flexible self and then the flexible object is attatched to a stiff carrier, making the object effectively stiff. (The diagram for this is shown above). Draw any flexible object as a blob and then draw a second instance of this same blob attached to a stiff blob.  These objects can then be morphed into the existing objects to resolve the contradiction.

Recursive Improvement
Once we have solutions to the contradiction, the final stage of this step asks us to check whether our goals have been met.  Are there any major risks or disadvantages left?  Have we met the specification which we have made to satisfy our market?  If we have not, then we must loop back and continue to improve the product or process.  If we have met the goals, then it is time to move on to the next solution possibility.   If we can find no solution to the contradiction, then we may pick another object attribute to idealize.

Law of Non-Uniform System Development
Before leaving this introduction, it is worthy of note that system development is largely regulated by the resolution of contradictions.  Systems do not improve in a pretty manner.  There is constant tension between development of one part and another.  One would think that a given product, over time, would have a much more smooth development in which each part of the system becomes better and better.  This was not meant to be.  We refer to this as the law of non-uniform system development which states that:
—System parts are improved in “fits and spurts”
—When one part is improved, other parts may be harmed.
—System improvement is slowed by increasing conflicts.
—When one part improves, other parts may appear worse by comparison.
—The system takes on Subsystem improvements and Effects

07 Jet EngineTo illustrate this, let us take a jet engine.  One way to make a jet engine more efficient is to increase the temperature of the combusted gases before these gases enter the turbine part of the engine.  This generally necessitates that many sub-components on the engine become hotter.  The increased temperature accelerates the degradation of many subsystem components such as electric motors, electronics,  seals, guides and bearings.  Consequently, there is a constant struggle between increasing the efficiency of the jet engine and the reliability of its subsystems. We can see from this example that a jet engine is fertile grounds for contradictions.  Removing these contradictions will free up more resources for further system evolution. 

Pick and Clarify High Impact Contradictions

11/2/17

Method

Step 1:  Compare all the knobs on the cause effect diagram and consider which might have a greater impact.  These could be high impact contradictions.  Especially consider object attributes (knobs) that cause several alternate problems (Kingpins)

Step 2:  Pick one attribute to concentrate on.  Warning:  Do not shy away from or ignore the hard knobs to turn.

Step 3:  Consider the knob setting in which the main problem (Y1) goes away.  This knob setting may not be the most extreme value possible, but sufficiently different that the problem would be removed for some time to come.

Step 4:  Identify what gets worse (Y2).

Step 5:  In order to not have the resulting problem the knob setting must be at another setting.  This knob setting may not be the most extreme value possible, but sufficiently different that the new problem would be removed for some time to come.

Step 6: form the Contradiction:

In order to (Y1 improvement) the (element) (knob or attribute) must be (setting A)

In order to (Y2 improvement) the (element) (knob or attribute) must be (setting B)

Explanation

High impact contradictions begin with high impact knobs.08 Red Circled Knobs on Chart 
These are knobs that strongly affect the primary problem.  With a causal analysis diagram in front of us, we can see the effect of individual knobs.  It is worth a careful study of the diagram before we choose which contradictions to focus on.

Choosing Hard-To-Turn Knobs
Many high impact knobs lie on the main paths that cause the problem, but some of these knobs don’t seem like good candidates to try.  In the TRIZ Power Tools book--Discovering Cause, we consider a laboratory situation where acid cubes are tested for corrosion by placing them in a container of acid.  The problem is that the acid container is quite expensive and needs to be changed out due to corrosion.  We want to reduce the expense of changing out the container.  The cause-effect diagram shows a hight impact knob setting: the "cost of replacement is high".  For most people, this knob would not be considered because the expense, itself, seems to be an “outcome” rather than an independent variable.  But notice that it is still a high-impact knob.  The implied contradiction is “The cost of replacement is high because we are not going to alter the things that cause it to be high and the cost of replacement must be low because I don’t want this expense.”   Notice that nothing gets worse, but the cost of replacement must be high and low.  This is a valid contradiction. The solution to this contradiction might yield interesting options that would not, otherwise, be considered.

Most causal analysis diagrams will include many of these implied contradictions.  Here is a warning.  High impact implied contradictions can be forgotten or marginalized.  This is because most people shy away from turning these knobs.  This tendency diminishes with experience in resolving this type of contradiction.

Kingpins
ome knobs are especially important “kingpins”.  You can recognize them because several alternative solution paths join together at one double box.   An example form is shown below.

09 Kingpin Contradiction

One contradiction is circled.  The resolution of this contradiction resolves four problems shown at the bottom of the diagram.  Turning other knobs will likely solve fewer problems.

Combinations of Knobs
In general, it is better to find single knobs that can be turned far enough to solve the problem. Usually, there are sufficient knobs to work with.   If no single knob can be found, this is a clue that we may be approaching the limits of system resources and need to evolve the system to a new physical phenomenon to improve the system further.  If multiple knobs must be turned, then it may be necessary to resolve multiple contradictions.   By study, we can tell which knobs must be simultaneously turned to solve the problem. 

Writing the Contradiction
Once we have chosen the contradiction that we want to work with, now we want to write them in a phrase that is easier to understand:

In order to (Y1 improvement) the (element) (knob or attribute) must be (setting A)

In order to (Y2 improvement) the (element) (knob or attribute) must be (setting B) 

 Thus we can see that the knob setting must be A and B.

We go to this trouble for a couple of reasons.  For one thing, it is easy to get confused during the resolution of the contradiction what the element is and sometimes the problem solver forgets which knob and setting they are concerned with.   

Example—Pile Driving

Step 1:  Compare all the knobs on the cause effect diagram and consider which might have a greater impact.  These could be high impact contradictions.  Especially consider object attributes (knobs) that cause several alternate problems (Kingpins)

In this case, there are many knobs which control the driving speed of the pile.  Several are mentioned below. 

10 Pile Parameters

Step 2:  Pick one attribute to concentrate on.  Warning:  Do not shy away from or ignore the hard knobs to turn.

11 Pile SharpnessIn this case, we will concentrate on tip sharpness.  We could have chosen one of the others, but we always know that if we have too many struggles, we can go back to one of the other knobs.

Step 3:  Consider the condition in which the main problems go away.  This condition may not be the most extreme value possible, but sufficiently different that the problem would be removed for some time to come. 

I12 Tip Shape is Sharpn our case, we have chosen the tip sharpness as the attribute that we want to change.  In order to improve driving speed, the tip must be very sharp. (Note that this step is a repeat of what we have already done while forming the diagram.  We are now focusing in on the implied and explicit contradictions that we have already formed.)

Step 4:  Identify what gets worse (Y2).

Supporting the buildings on top of the piles during an earthquake is what gets worse.

Step 5:  In order to not have the resulting problem the knob setting must be at another setting.  This knob setting may not be the most extreme value possible, but sufficiently different that the new problem would be removed for some time to come.

The pile should be blunt in order to avoid providing poor support under an earthquake load.

Step 6:  Form the Contradiction.

13 One Blunt and One Sharp Pile

In order to (drive fast) the (pile) (tip shape) must be (sharp)

In order to (support well) the (pile) (tip shape) must be (blunt)

Thus the pile must be both sharp and blunt.


Separate in Time

With Separation in Time[16] we allow for the knob setting to be at one setting at one point in time and the conflicting setting at another point in time.  This separation principle is one of the most intuitive.  There are also a lot of tools for separating in time.  This allows us to overwhelm a contradiction so long as Separation in Time is allowed.

Unfortunately, it is not always possible to separate in time.  The conditions under which both knob settings must occur are not allowed to overlap in time.  If they must overlap, then we cannot separate in time.  (However, we will make provisions for finding ways to not overlap).

Additionally, there are often inherent drawbacks to separation in time.  Changing properties may require the addition of functions and their attending elements.  This can add complexity to the product or service.  An exception to this is if the separation can occur “on condition” without the addition of parts.  In order to overcome these objections, the substance or function must be added in a way that requires the least resources.  For instance, an existing substance or object provides the required function or the substance comes from the temporary addition of substance.  For this reason, we add the step of simplification at the end of separation in time.

Why Start with Separation in Time?
The flow logic starts with Separation in Time because it contains the largest number of opportunities for solution.  If the flow logic tells us that it cannot be used, then we have eliminated a large number of methods and can move on. After finishing each section, move on to the next, unless the flow logic indicates otherwise. 

The subject of the contradiction may be an object, field or action.  These are referred to as the “Element”.

Test

I want the (element) to be (setting A) while (condition A). I want the (element) to be (setting B) while (condition B).  Must the critical conditions overlap in time?  If they must overlap then you should go to Separate Gradually.

Explanation

With so many ways to resolve contradictions, it is necessary to focus the problem solver on which methods might be appropriate or even possible.  Each separation principle uses a test which guides the user by asking questions about the objects or fields or actions involved in the contradiction.  Learning to thoughtfully answer these questions is an essential skill. 

If there really is a requirement for both properties then we ask if the conditions under which they are required must occur at the same time.  An example of this is the measuring of temperature of weevils.  For those unacquainted with this classic TRIZ example, there is a need to measure the temperature of weevils with a simple apparatus, such as a common thermometer.  The size of the weevil is the problem.  The weevil must be large in order to insert the thermometer.  Let’s ask the question that we did before:  must we ensure that the weevil is both large and small?  While weevils do not come in this size, let’s assume that by using some bizarre physical phenomenon that we could make them large, does this cause a problem?  Yes, the metabolism of the weevil would change if it were large.  In other words, we must ensure that the weevil is large in order to insert the thermometer and the weevil must be small in order to maintain the same metabolism.  The answer to the next question helps us further.

When are the conditions that both properties must occur?

     It must be (prop #1) while (condition A)

     It must be (Property #2) while (condition B)

Weevil Example:

     It must be (Large) while (measuring the temperature)

     It must be (small) while (all the time being a weevil)

May these critical conditions be separate (not overlap) in time?  The answer is “no”, they must overlap in time.  Therefore it is not possible to Separate in Time.  

There are usually critical moments in time when one property or the other must exist.  If these critical moments overlap in time, it is not possible to separate the contradictory properties in time.  Let us take the example of driving piles into the ground.  If we are interested in driving fast, we may choose to make the pile sharp.  But then something gets worse.  Because the tip is sharp, we need to drive it further to get the same vertical support.  In this case, we have requirements for the pile to be sharp and to be blunt.  We need it to be sharp for driving fast and blunt for support.  In answer to the above question we would write:

 It must be (sharp) when (driving)

 It must be (blunt) when (supporting)

Both properties must be ensured.  Now, we ask if these conditions must occur at the same time:

May these critical conditions be separate (not overlap) in time?

Clearly, the critical conditions of driving and supporting may be separated in time.  Therefore, it makes sense to Separate in Time.  During driving, the piles are sharp.  Some time afterwards, the piles must be blunt for supporting.  By using the logic flows provided in each section, the problem solver can confidently use or skip each Separation Principle.

While Separation in Time is one of the primary tools for resolving contradictions, it may not be possible or necessary.  If this is the case then we can bypass this step and save ourselves a lot of work. In certain cases, Separation in Time may not be possible.  We can tell that it is not possible if the conditions under which each conflicting attribute is essential (useful and necessary) overlap in time.  If the conditions clearly do not overlap, then we can safely proceed with Separation in Time. 

Be careful that you have explored various ways that the critical conditions can be separated in time.  Sometimes the conditions are actions that can be broken into steps which have sequence.  It may be possible to rearrange the sequence such that the conditions do not overlap.

Example—Pile Driving

13 One Blunt and One Sharp PileWe would like the pile to be SHARP in order to drive it more rapidly and we would like it to be BLUNT in order to support well.

Test:  I want the (pile) to be (sharp) while (driving).  I want the (pile) to be (blunt) while (supporting).  Must the critical conditions overlap in time?

This is a clear example of a contradiction where the conditions of driving and supporting are separated by potentially large expanses of time.  This is a good candidate for Separation in Time.

Example—The Farmer’s Mush

14 The Farmers MushTest:  I want the (cooked cereal) to be (prepared) while (sometime before the farmer eats). I want the (cooked cereal) to be (not prepared) while (the farmer’s wife is sleeping).  Must the critical conditions overlap in time?

Since preparation of the cereal is an action or function, we know that it is possible to break this action down into steps which can be sequenced to guarantee that no overlap between the conditions occurs.

We just need to guarantee that the cereal preparation does not occur while the farmer’s wife wants to sleep.  This makes this contradiction a good opportunity for Separation in Time and in particular to use Prior Action[20].

Example—Long Distance Swimming

I15 Long Distance Swimmingn order to train for long swims, it is necessary to have MUCH water so that the swimmer does not need to do lots of turns. But there must be LITTLE water in order to conserve space.

Test:  I want the (water) to be (much) while (swimming). I want the (water) to be (little) while (all the time).  Must the critical conditions overlap in time? 

Overlap occurs between “swimming” and “all the time”.  We will go to Separate Gradually.

Example—Traffic Light

16 Traffic LightTest:  I want the (operation) to be (failed) while (never). I want the (operation) to be (not failed) while (operating in traffic).  Must the critical conditions overlap in time? 

“Never” and “operating in traffic” do not overlap in time.  Since operation of the light bulb is an action, this makes one of the action principles a good candidate for resolving this contradiction.  Note that many of the methods will not apply because they seek to guarantee that the unwanted setting is achieved.

Example—Controlled Explosions

17 Controlled ExplosionsTest:  I want the (plug) to be (intimately contacting) while (making contact with the leads). I want the (plug contact) to be (not existing) while (falling).  Must the critical conditions (making contact with the leads and falling) overlap in time? 

18 Controlled Explosion Contradiction

It appears that these overlap in time since the plugs never stop falling.  It is concluded to go to Separate Gradually.

Example—Super Yacht

19 Super YachtTest:  I want the (construction) to be (in the dock) while (the ship parts are small enough to fit in the dock). I want the (construction) to be (in the Harbor) while (the ship parts are too big for the dock).  Must the critical conditions overlap in time? 

Since construction of the ship is an action or function, we know that it is possible to break this action down into steps which can be sequenced differently to guarantee that no overlap occurs.  Also, the way that we formed the conditions makes them mutually exclusive in time.  This makes this contradiction a good opportunity for Separation in Time and in particular to use Prior Action.

Example—Fish to the Rescue

20 Shark Chasing Single FishTest:  I want the (fish) to be (normal endurance) while (never). I want the (fish) to be (infinite endurance) while (being chased).  Must the critical conditions overlap in time?

“Never” and “while being chased” do not overlap in time.  Therefore we will try to separate in time.  Some of the methods will appear weak because they seek to guarantee the condition of low endurance which is not essential. 

21 Fish Endurance Contradiction

Practice—Radiation Treatment

Practice—The Lesser Weevil

Practice—A Post and an Outpost

Practice—I Just Can’t Stop

Method22 Prior Action

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  (Modification) of the (product) can be broken down into steps.  The steps(s) of (actions performed during Condition A) are performed during (condition A) by (method or previously placed tool) in order to have (setting A).  The remaining steps(s) of (remaining actions) are performed during (condition B) in order to have (setting B).

Explanation

Prior action[21] is only used for contradictions dealing with functions or actions.  Prior action does not mean that we simply do “something” prior to a critical event.  Consider that virtually every separation principle requires that something be done ahead of time.  What would make Prior Action different than every other separation method?  This principle has the name “prior action” because some action related to the problem occurs prior to the normal occurrence, not because we take an action prior to the solution being realized.

One of the reasons that contradictions occur with actions and functions is that we mentally lock ourselves into the idea that an action is something that happens at once.  When we say “we cook the egg”, we typically do not consider all of the sub-actions that occur.  We oil the pan, heat the pan, move the egg from the refrigerator, crack the egg, etc.  In fact, all actions can be broken into sub-actions or steps which can be rearranged in sequence and time.  We can even interject other actions into the sequence. Some of these stages (or a part of each) should be moved into condition A and the others should occur during condition B.  The redistribution of these sub-actions resolves the contradiction.

We must find a way to break the action into stages and then perform these stages when they are best suited to resolve the contradiction.  Mostly, we want to perform the necessary actions in advance of when they are actually needed.

One very good way to perform an action in advance is to place a tool for the purpose of performing an action later.  This represents half a step that might normally have been taken.  The tool is placed to perform an action and then the full action is performed later.

Common Example—Paper Towel Dispensing

In a public lavatory, people need to dry their hands following washing them.  We are very familiar with paper towels that are perforated, but imagine what it would have been like without the perforations.  The cutting of the towel would take some time in order to not make a mess.  It is necessary to TEAR the spent portion of the paper towel for disposal.  But imagine trying to tear off a piece of the paper towel with wet hands.  We must NOT TEAR in order to save time and not make a mess for the next person.

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.   (Tearing) of the (towel) can be broken down into steps.  The steps(s) of (holding and tearing) are performed during (any time previous to use) by (mechanical holding and tearing) in order to have (tearing).  The remaining steps(s) of (pulling the towel) are performed during (towel use) in order to have (not tearing).

23 Tearing Paper TowelPart of the action is performed at the time that it is required (pulling).  Part is not performed when it is required, it is performed earlier (holding and cutting).  The towel is torn and not torn.

Example—Removing a Plaster Cast Following Healing

Plaster casts are somewhat difficult to remove.  Insertion of tools between the flesh and the cast can be uncomfortable for the patient.  The cast needs to be CUT to complete healing and for sanitation reasons and it should NOT BE CUT so as to keep the patient comfortable.

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  (Removing) of the (cast) can be broken down into steps.  The steps(s) of (inserting the cutting tool) are performed during (forming the cast) by (cutting tool in straw) in order to have (not cut).  The remaining steps(s) of (cutting and removing the cast) are performed during (final cast removal) in order to have (cutting).

24 Saw in CastPart of the action is performed at the time that it is required (cutting and prying).  Part is not performed when it is required; it is performed earlier (inserting the cutting tool).  Cutting is performed and not performed.

Manufacturing Example—Rapid Setup

Manufacturers have recognized that once a numerically controlled machine is set up, it can inexpensively machine many parts.  The cost comes in when the machine is first prepared for the parts.  SETTING UP the machine can be very slow and tedious.  NOT SETTING UP avoids adding this cost to the cost of making the parts increases the part costs, making the manufacturer less competitive. 

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  (Setting up) of the (machined part) can be broken down into steps.  The steps(s) of (adjusting) are performed during (other machining operation) by (use of a rapid-setup mount) in order to have (setting up).  The remaining steps(s) of (inserting the mount into the machine) are performed during (machining time) in order to have (not setting up).

25 Rapid Manufacturing SetupPart of the action is performed at the time that it is required (performing the machining).  Part is not performed when it is required; it is performed earlier (setting up the machine).  The action is performed and not performed.  This is known as Rapid Setup and is a common tool used to “lean” a process.

Chemical Example—Self Cleaning Oven26 Catalysts on Oven Surfaces

Self-cleaning ovens accomplish their task of cleaning by requiring the operator to lock the oven and then heat it to a much higher temperature than normal.  While this is somewhat easier than performing the cleaning manually, the process is wasteful of energy.  The action of heating (cleaning) must be PERFORMED and NOT BE PERFORMED.

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.   (Removal) of the (oven residue) can be broken down into steps.  The steps(s) of (decomposing the residue) are performed during (normal cooking) by (use of catalysts) in order to have (not performed—the heavy work).  The remaining steps(s) of (wiping the surfaces) are performed during (an empty and cool oven) in order to have (performed).

Administrative Example—Adult Training

27 Adult TrainingThe startup of a new facility can be difficult when performed in offshore situations.  Many new procedures must be learned by a large amount of people.  TRAINING is required so that the new procedures will be performed perfectly or the product may get a bad reputation.  NOT TRAINING is required to preserve money.

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  (Training) of the (employees) can be broken down into steps.  The steps(s) of (presentation type learning—least time consuming) are performed during (construction of the plant) by (trained instructors) in order to have (training).

The remaining steps(s) of (applying the training—most time consuming) are performed during (actual work) in order to have (not training—paid to work).

Software Example—Calculating

Long and abstract equations are often necessary for control functions.  These calculations can be very time consuming and reduce the throughput of a microprocessor.  It is necessary to CALCULATE in order to provide control and it is necessary to NOT CALCULATE in order to free up the processor for other functions.

(The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  Manipulation—calculation) of the (data) can be broken down into steps.  The steps(s) of (calculation) are performed during (construction of the algorithm) by (lookup table) in order to have (calculation).

The remaining steps(s) of (fetching the data) are performed during (calculation) in order to have (not calculate).

Software Example—Pre-Ordered Index

In order to find data, a search is indicated.  It is necessary to SEARCH in order to find the data and it is necessary to NOT SEARCH in order to save time.

(The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  Search for (data) can be broken down into steps.  The steps(s) of (finding a region of data) are performed during (time that other calculations are not being performed) by (pre-searching the data) in order to have (search).

The remaining steps(s) of (pointing directly to or fetching the data) are performed during (calculation) in order to have ( not search).

Software Example—Caching

Fetching data from disk or physical memory can be time consuming when a lot of data needs to be fetched.  The data must be FETCHED in order to perform calculations and it must NOT BE FETCHED in order to take less overall time to perform the calculations.

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  (Fetching) of the (data) can be broken down into steps.  The steps(s) of (fetching from the disk) are performed during (other related manipulations) by (reading from the disk and storing in separate memory) in order to have (not fetching).  The remaining steps(s) of (clocking the data into the CPU) are performed during (use of the data) in order to have (fetching).

Load something before-hand into cache memory.  It remains there until it is required. This means pre-fetching instructions and any static data that goes with it. Caching memory is much faster than physical memory.  It is likewise much faster than pulling instructions and static data from disk.

Practice—The Farmer’s Mush

Method28 Partial Action

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  (Modification) of the (product of the function) is partially performed in its entirety during (condition A) by (method) giving (setting A).  The function is completed during (condition B) by (description of final action) giving (setting B).

Explanation

Partial action[22] [23] is only used for contradictions dealing with functions or actions.  Unlike Prior action, this method calls for partially performing all of the stages beforehand.  The action is thus completed later.  It is “not performed” and then it is “performed” which are attributes of a function or action.  Contradictions involving other interaction attributes can also be solved using this method.

Common Example—Paper Towel Dispensing

In a public lavatory, people need to dry their hands following washing them.  We are very familiar with paper towels that are perforated, but imagine what it would have been like without the perforations.  The cutting of the towel would take some time in order to not make a mess.  It is necessary to TEAR the spent portion of the paper towel for disposal.  But imagine trying to tear off a piece of the paper towel with wet hands.  We must NOT TEAR in order to save time and not make a mess for the next person.

29 Paper Towel AgainThe contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  (Tearing) of the (towel) is partially performed in its entirety during (manufacture of the towel) by (perforating the towel) giving (not tearing).  The function is completed during (towel use) by (pulling the towel) giving (tearing).

Example—Removing a Plaster Cast Following Healing

Plaster casts are somewhat difficult to remove.  Insertion of tools between the flesh and the cast can be uncomfortable for the patient.  The cast needs to be CUT to complete healing and for sanitation reasons and it should NOT BE CUT so as to keep the patient comfortable.

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  (Removing) of the (cast) is partially performed in its entirety during (forming of the cast) by (pre-inserting a dissolvable material) giving (not cut).  The function is completed during (removal of the cast) by (cutting the cast with a solvent) giving (cutting).

30 Region of Softening ReactionPartially cutting the cast is probably not preferable as some patients may engage in behaviors which could put stress into the cast.  Precutting the cast would lower the structural integrity.  However, if a material could be found that would not lose structural integrity and would lose its integrity when exposed to an unusual, yet safe, solvent (such as alcohol), it might be possible to finish the cutting by applying the solvent.

Manufacturing Example—Rapid Setup

Manufacturers have recognized that once a numerically controlled machine is set up, it can inexpensively machine many parts.  The cost comes in when the machine is first prepared for the parts.  SETTING UP the machine can be very slow and tedious.  NOT SETTING UP avoids adding this cost to the cost of making the parts increases the part costs, making the manufacturer less competitive. 

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  (Setting up) of the (machined part) is partially performed in its entirety during (other machining operations) by (setting up another machine) giving (not setting up).  The function is completed during (machining) by (running the machine) giving (setting up).

Software Example—Data Fetching

Fetching data from disk can be time consuming.

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  (fetching) of the (data) is partially performed in its entirety during (other software operations) by (fetching some data from disk) giving (not fetching).  The function is completed during (the required software operation) by (finishing the fetching of data) giving (fetching).

Administrative Example—Adult Training

31 Adult Training AgainThe startup of a new facility can be difficult when performed in offshore situations.  Many new procedures must be learned by a large amount of people.  TRAINING is required so that the new procedures will be performed perfectly or the product may get a bad reputation.  NOT TRAINING is required to preserve money.

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  (Training) of the (employees) is partially performed in its entirety during (operation of another plant) by (apprenticing the employees to skilled workers) giving (trained).  The function is completed during (actual work) by (applying the training) giving (not paid training).

The employees are partially trained at another facility and then come to work at the new facility. (According to a chemist friend, this is what the Japanese did when they set up amino acid plants in the United States.  They had the employees go back to Japan for several weeks of on-hands training).

Practice—The Farmer’s Mush

Method33 Excessive and Remedial Action

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function that must be performed rapidly and slowly.  The function of (modifying) the (product) can be rapidly performed by the gross action of (method of performing excessively).  The detailed remedial action of (remedial action) is made possible by (method) in advance or by overflowing a (threshold) threshold by (method)

Explanation

32 Cut Long and Sand to LengthWith Excessive and Remedial Action[24] [25] we consider a useful action that must be performed accurately but cannot be performed accurately due to time constraints or inconvenience.

In order to solve this contradiction, the action, or part of the action, is performed excessively or even wastefully at the inconvenient time.  We cut the board long, so to speak and sand it to length later.

In order to correct the negative effect caused by performing it excessively there are two approaches.  In one case, a remedial action is performed that corrects the action to the required state.  In the other case, the excessive action “over-flows” or crosses a threshold where it is no longer performed.  In either case, the action is performed inaccurately and then accurately.

Performing a remedial action is generally not preferred, but it may be allowable if it is inexpensive or not too wasteful.  The negative effects of performing and action excessively may be softened by adding a tool, beforehand, to make the correction more convenient or less costly.

Example—Masking & Painting

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  Painting detailed parts or surfaces can be a very time consuming task.  It is necessary to paint the parts very rapidly and INACCURATELY in order to save time and to reduce exposure of the painters to solvents, etc.  But it is also necessary to perform the painting very ACCURATELY to that it looks nice.

34 Masking and PaintingThe contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  The function of (painting) the (detailed parts) can be rapidly performed by the gross action of (painting with a roller or large brush).  The detailed remedial action of (removing the excess paint) is made possible by (applying masking) in advance or by overflowing a (hydrophobic) threshold by (making the unpainted areas from hydrophobic materials.)

Example—Concentrated Sauces from Pastes

Cooking sauces can be time consuming due to the lengthy time to reduce the sauce to a consistency that meets the needs of the recipe or the taste of the cook.  A good example of this is tomato sauce.  Fresh cut tomatoes are composed of a high percentage of water.  Cooking these down to a sauce in a restaurant can be very time consuming. The creation of the sauce under the high pressure cooking conditions of a modern restaurant needs to be very rapid and INACCURATE in order to make money and it needs to be performed very ACCURATELY in order to achieve the perfect consistency for the customer.

35 Sauce from PasteThe contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  The function of (reducing) the (tomato sauce) can be rapidly performed by the gross action of (introducing tomato paste).  The detailed remedial action of (thinning the sauce) is made possible by (thickening the paste) in advance or by overflowing a (unknown) threshold by (unknown).

Example—Building Kitchen Cabinets

Building custom cabinets for a kitchen is time consuming.  Each individual board must be sawed and glued or nailed into place.  This is one reason that custom cabinets are so expensive.  This puts nice cabinets out of the reach of the common person. The cabinets must be rapidly and INACCURATELY built in order to make money and they must be built very ACCURATELY in order that the customer is pleased.

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  The function of (building) the (cabinets) can be rapidly performed by the gross action of (installing the prebuilt cabinets).  The detailed remedial action of (shimming to the correct spacing) is made possible by (providing precut or adjustable shims) in advance or by overflowing a (unknown) threshold by (unknown).

Software Example—Iterative Search

 A search for data needs to be performed very accurately, but performing it sequentially can be very time consuming.  The search for the date needs to be very ACCURATE and INACCURATE.

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  The function of (searching) the (data set) can be rapidly performed by the gross action of (jumping to a location and then checking the properties of the data).  The detailed remedial action of (a final sequential search) is made possible by (knowing the data properties) in advance or by overflowing a (unknown) threshold by (unknown).

“An example of this strategy in the software world is the use of a search algorithm to find information related to a specific person from a list of alphabetically sorted names stored in an array.  Of course, for a small list of names, a sequential search starting at the beginning of the list is not especially time consuming for a computer and may be faster than a more complex algorithm.  However, when the list grows to include hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands or millions of entries, a sequential search becomes impractical and wasteful because its expected cost is O(n).  On average, half of the entries must be checked before the desired name will be found.

A binary search algorithm takes advantage of the ordered nature of the list and utilizes a “divide and conquer” strategy to quickly narrow in on the desired name.  It does this by inspecting the name at the mid-point of the array first, comparing it to the search name.  If the mid-point value is alphabetically greater than the search name, the search name (if it exists in the list at all) must be in the top half of the array.  Likewise, if the mid-point entry is alphabetically less than the search name, the search name would have to reside beyond the mid-point of the array.

After one of the two halves of the array is selected for further evaluation, the process continues in the same way, continuously determining which half of the remaining array portion could contain the search name and thus which half can be removed from consideration.  If each name in the list is unique (no duplicates), this algorithm will find the search name in at most O(log n) evaluations.  For example, an array of 1024 entries would require only 10 evaluations of array entries to narrow in on the right entry.  Doubling the array size to 2048 entries would increase the maximum number of evaluations needed to 11.  Even for a list containing every unique name of all U.S. residents, only 30 comparisons would be required to find the position of the name in the array.

But what if there are duplicate names in the list?  What if the additional criteria that distinguish the duplicate names from one another are not part of the sort order?  Perhaps you are looking the John Smith born in 1948 whose wife’s name is Harriet and whose second child is named Gertrude.  While the binary search algorithm will quickly find a matching name, the person you are actually looking for may be slightly above or below the entry found.

This is a case where a combination of the two search techniques may be useful.  The binary search algorithm can be used to quickly narrow down a large list to a small area of interest.  Since a sequential search algorithm is quite efficient on small lists, it could then be used to find the specific person you are looking for by stepping through each John Smith sequentially and examining other relevant (but non-indexed) data fields[26]

Example—Writing a Book

Stopping and starting during the creative process of writing a book interrupts the creative flow of ideas and images. The writing must be INACCURATE. Unfortunately, this leads to poor grammar, clumsy thoughts and poor punctuation.  The writing needs to be performed ACCURATELY.

36 Writing a BookThe contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  The function of (writing) the (book) can be rapidly performed by the gross action of (writing without stopping).  The detailed remedial action of (correcting the logic, grammar and punctuation) is made possible by (a specialist and specialized software) in advance or by overflowing a (unknown) threshold by (unknown).

Example—Rapidly Forming a High Functioning Team

Sometimes it is difficult to put a group together which has the right skills to perform a task.  This is especially true when under schedule pressure.  The group needs to be ACCURATELY put together to make sure that the right skills are available and it needs to be performed INACCURATELY in order to do it in a short period of time.

37 High Functioning TeamThe contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  The function of (forming) the (group) can be rapidly performed by the gross action of (gathering rapidly).  The detailed remedial action of (selecting the most appropriate members) is made possible by (unknown) in advance or by overflowing a (capability) threshold by (filling task positions as the group arrives with the most capable person).

Method38 Prior Counteraction

The harmful function of (harmful function) the (element) cannot be avoided.  The counter action of (counter action) is performed in advance by (method of counter action) so that when the time for the harmful action of (harmful action) the (element) it is not (harmful action).

Explanation

Prior Counteraction[27] is useful when a harmful action must “unavoidably” occur.  This usually happens when there is an object that performs a useful function and also performs a harmful function.  In order to nullify the harmful action, we perform a counter action prior to the harmful action which nullifies the harmful action.  Thus, the harmful action occurs, but because of the counter action, the combined effect is that it doesn’t occur.  The counter action usually involves the same physical phenomenon as the action which performs the harmful function.

Example—Medicine Ampoule

An ampoule filled with heat sensitive medicine must be heat sealed.  The heat will damage the Medicine.  The medicine must be HEATED to seal the ampoule and NOT HEATED to keep from spoiling the medicine.

39 Cold and Hot Medicine AmpulesThe harmful function of (heating) the (medicine) cannot be avoided.  The counter action of (cooling the medicine) is performed in advance by (cooling with liquid nitrogen) so that when the time for the harmful action of (heating) the (medicine) it is not (heated).

Example—Movement of an Object

A periodic harmful action moves an object to a location where it is not wanted.  The object must be MOVED and UNMOVED.

40 Block SlidingThe harmful function of (moving) the (object) cannot be avoided.  The counter action of (moving the object in the opposite direction) is performed in advance by (relocating the object) so that when the time comes for the harmful action of (moving) the (object) it is not (moved).

In this case, the object ends up where you wanted it in the first place.

Software Example—Exception Handlers

A harmful software function WILL HAPPEN but MUST NOT HAPPEN.

The harmful function of (a harmful software function harming ) the (operation of the system) cannot be avoided.  The counter action of (hardware creating an exception) is performed in advance by (flagging the system that a harmful action could be happening) so that when the time comes for the harmful action of (harming) the (operating system) it is not (harmed).

“Exception Handlers—preparing for the worst.  This extends the concept from knowing that a harmful action WILL happen in the future to one of a harmful action COULD happen in the future.  The hardware usually creates an “exception” or “interrupt” to let you know that something bad happened.  The operating system then decides what to do about the situation.  For instance, what operation was being performed  when it happened and how to handle it.”[28]

Example—Pre-stressed Concrete

Concrete has low strength in tension and a high strength in compression.  When a structure such as a bridge is built, it must support heavy loads such as commercial trucks.  The span between supports is heavily loaded which causes high tension stresses on the underside of the span.  This high stress is unavoidable.  The tension load must be HIGH because it is “unavoidable”.  The tension load must be LOW in order to keep from fracturing the concrete.

41 Pre stressed ConcreteThe harmful function of (loading) the (concrete span) cannot be avoided.  The counter action of (applying a tension load) is performed in advance by (inserting steel columns under tension which “clamp” the span) so that when the time comes for the harmful action of (applying tension to the span) the (concrete span) it is not (loaded in tension).

Software Example—Memory Budgeting Budgeting

During operation of software, memory interference CAN OCCUR, however it MUST NOT OCCUR.

The harmful function of (overwriting) the (system memory) cannot be avoided.  The counter action of (budgeting for worst case interference) is performed in advance by (allocating sufficient memory for worst case conditions) so that when the time comes for the harmful action of (interference) the (system memory) it is not (overwritten).

 “Countering—Budgeting under worst case memory or cache interference  then later operating under non-worst case interference (actual operation) allows for no interference. This is a common way to handle budgeting.[29]

Practice—Vibrating Water Wheel

Practice—Traffic Light

Practice—Storing Almost Protons 

Method42 Countering

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  The (element) must be (null action) during (condition A).  This is accomplished by applying (counteraction).  The counter action is removed during (condition B) when the full action is required.

Explanation

For Countering[30], the conflicting properties are that an action must occur and it must not occur.  Both are actually desirable at the appropriate times.

There are two possibilities. First, two strong actions counter each other and give a null action.  Later, one of the actions is removed, leaving the full action of one of the original actions. 

The second possibility is that one strong action exists.  Later a counter action is added which gives the null action.   This is typically used with actions, fields and movements. 

The possibility exists to use the principle of COUNTER WEIGHT to make elements push or pull each other.  A transmission element may be required between the elements.  Sometimes, counter fields can overlap each other in such a way to nullify each other.  The field gradients can be opposite each other to create one condition or they can be entirely opposite each other.

Example of Counter Weight

A heavy object must be precisely dropped, but in order to drop it precisely, it must first be positioned accurately.  Positioning the object is difficult since it is so heavy. 

43 Counter WeightThe contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  The (weight) must be (held) during (positioning).  This is accomplished by applying (a counter weight or force).  The counter action is removed during (dropping) when the full action is required.

Example—Cancellation of Waveforms

A signal needs to be transmitted at all times, but it must not be transmitted during resting periods.

44 Cancellation of Wave FormsThe contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  The (signal) must be (silent) during (a rest period).  This is accomplished by applying (an 180 degrees out of phase signal).  The counter action is removed during (communication) when the full action is required.

Example—Deadfalls and Snares

In order to kill an animal during wilderness survival, a large force must be used.  However, a large force is not easily and rapidly brought into play. 

45 Deadfalls and SnaresThe contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  The (heavy log) must be (held) during (positioning of the animal).  This is accomplished by applying (a counter weight or force).  The counter action is removed during (killing of the animal) when the full action is required.

Example—Military Mock Battles

In order to be increasingly ready with the latest in military strategy, a military unit should be in battle against units prepared with the latest technology and strategies.  However, there are times of peace when fighting an actual enemy is not possible.

46 Mock BattlesThe contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  The (military unit) must be (opposed by the latest military strategies) during (times of peace).  This is accomplished by applying (pitting half of the army against itself).  The counter action is removed during (times of war) when the full action is required.  This is accomplished in mock military battles.

Example—Strong Pitch

At times a strong message is required from leaders.  At other times it is not necessary or even harmful.  In order that the main presenter of the message is not considered weak, the message must always be presented.

47 Strong PitchThe contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  The (message) must be (muted) during (times when message has low priority).  This is accomplished by applying (a counter argument from other leaders).  The counter action is removed during (times of high priority) when the full action is required.

Example—Magnetization

The contradiction attribute relates to an action or function.  The (magnetic element) must be (magnetically neutral) during (non-operation).  This is accomplished by applying (counter magnetic forces).  The counter action is removed during (operation) when the full action is required.

48 MagnetsA material is magnetized with both polarities.  The flux lines remain primarily internal to the magnetic material.  This is called a keeper and keeps the magnetic strength high.  Later, one polarity is reversed so that only one of the polarities remains.  Now the flux lines are primarily external and can be used for various functions.

Simplified Method50 Separation on Condition

The difference of (difference) between (condition A) and (condition B) will change the (element attribute) from (setting A) to (setting B).  The (physical phenomenon or method) will be exploited to drive the change of parameters.

Full Method

Step 1:  We have already identified the conditions under which we need to have each property or knob setting to determine whether we can Separate in Time.  What are these changing conditions?

Step 2:  Consult the unformatted table of fields above.  What fields change in the new conditions?

Step 3:  Identify the required function.

Step 4:  What physical phenomena can be used to deliver the required function?  If you are familiar with the methods used for identifying physical phenomena to deliver functions then use these methods.  Otherwise, brainstorm physical phenomena that can be used.

49 Table of Fields

Explanation

It is more ideal to separate on condition than in time.  The changing conditions must cause the change.  There is no need of monitoring or active control.  Thus, Separation on Condition is the Holy Grail of Separation in Time.

When we passed the test for Separating in Time, we determined the conditions (condition A) and (condition B) in which the (element attribute) needed to be (setting A) and (setting B).  There are usually a number of things that change between these two conditions.  One of these differences will be used to drive the change in settings.  Let’s take the case where the changing conditions were night and day. We ask ourselves “What changes between night and day?” The light level changes.  Temperatures change.  Relative humidity and insect activity changes between night and day.  One of these differences can now be used to change the attribute setting.   Changing fields can drive the change.  An unformatted list of fields is extracted from the Table of Fields in the appendix. 

Example—Clothes Iron Steam

Before steam irons, flat irons were used to iron clothes.  The iron was heated first by hot coals or on a stove top, and then later it was heated by an electric current.  Finally, it was desired that steam should flow.  In order to conserve water we ask how the flow of steam can occur only during ironing. The flow should be FLOWING while ironing and NOT FLOWING while not ironing.

Simplified Method

51 Clothes IronsThe difference of (iron orientation) between (ironing) and (iron resting) will change the (water flow) from (flowing) to (not flowing).  The (water level versus flow orifice level) will be exploited to drive the change of parameters.

Full Method

Step 1:  We have already identified the conditions under which we need to have each property or knob setting to determine whether we can Separate in Time.  What are these changing conditions? 

52 Not Flow and FlowSince we have already performed this step we recognize that the change from ironing to not ironing is the changing condition.

Step 2:  Consult the unformatted table of fields above.  What fields change in the new conditions?  

From the Table of Fields, we see that adhesion (friction), inertia and gravity fields are changing.

Step 3:  Identify the required function.

The required function is to move a liquid.

Step 4:  What physical phenomena can be used to deliver the required function?  If you are familiar with the methods used for identifying physical phenomena to deliver functions then use these methods.  Otherwise, brainstorm physical phenomena that can be used.

In this case, it was recognized that the iron is naturally set upright to keep from burning the clothing between ironing movements.

This change of orientation naturally allows for a change of flow through an orifice.  The contradiction is resolved on condition by making the water NOT FLOW when upright (not ironing) and FLOW when in the ironing position.

Example—Dark Glasses

The glasses need to be CLEAR under low lighting conditions and DARK under intense lighting conditions.

Simplified Method

The difference of (light intensity) between (low lighting) and (intense lighting) will change the (glass’s light transmission) from (high transmission) to (low transmission).  The (photo sensitivity) will be exploited to drive the change of parameters.

Full Method

Step 1:  What are these changing conditions? 

The change from low ambient light to high ambient light is the changing condition.  Identify the contradiction in the form shown.

Step 2:  Consult the unformatted table of fields above.  What fields change in the new conditions?  

53 Dark GlassesFrom the Table of Fields, we see light fields are changing.

Step 3:  Identify the required function.

The required function is to darken glass.

Step 4:  What physical phenomena can be used to deliver the required function?  If you are familiar with the methods used for identifying physical phenomena to deliver functions then use these methods.  Otherwise, brainstorm physical phenomena that can be used.

54 Dark and Clear Glasses PictureIn this case, it was recognized that certain materials are photo-sensitive and change shade based upon their energy state.  This phenomenon was used to change the glasses from clear to light.  The contradiction is resolved on condition by making the glasses CLEAR under low ambient light and DARK under high ambient light.

Example—Fluorescent Materials

A material must be VISIBLE under ultraviolet light and NOT VISIBLE when the light is turned off.

55 Fluorescent MaterialsThe difference of (ultraviolet intensity) between (light on) and (light off) will change the (material visibility) from (visible) to (not visible).  The (addition of a luminescent material) will be exploited to drive the change of parameters.

Example—Diving

The relative “hardness” of the water must be SOFT at low entrance speed and HARD at high entrance speeds.

The difference of (velocity) between (low entrance speed) and (high entrance speed) will change the (feeling of water hardness) from (soft) to (hard).  The (inertia of the water) will be exploited to drive the change of parameters.

56 DivingWhen jumping from low heights, the water is SOFT.  When jumping from great heights, the water is HARD.

Practice—Two Tining Rake

Practice—I Just Can’t Stop

Practice—Special Delivery

Practice—Take Smaller Bites

Practice—The Beat Goes On

Method

The difference of (difference) between (condition A) and (condition B) will change the (element) transparency from transparent to opaque.  The (physical phenomenon or method) will be exploited to drive the change of parameters.

Explanation

This separation principle is specifically related to one attribute, transparency.  The use of transparency[31]is a common TRIZ principle.  It is used in a variety of ways throughout the separation principles.  Here it allows for separation on condition because a transformation of transparency will automatically occur depending upon the changing conditions.  Certain types of filters can selectively pass objects depending on their size or shape.

Example—Hinged Elements

 Selectively passes solids in motion.  They may stop gases, liquids and small objects.  Thus hinged elements are TRANSPARENT when large objects try to pass and OPAQUE when small objects or extremely large objects try to pass.

57 Hinged ElementsThe difference of (object size) between (large animals) and (insects or air) will change the (trap door) transparency from transparent to opaque.  The (inertia of the door) will be exploited to drive the change of parameters.

Example—Mechanical Filters

Mechanical filters selectively pass small objects.  Examples of these are sieves, fabrics, filament wraps and molecular sieves.  Sieves are TRANSPARENT when light and air try to pass and OPAQUE when bugs try to pass.

58 Bug FilterThe difference of (object size) between (light and air) and (bugs) will change the (screen) transparency from transparent to opaque.  The (opening size of the screen) will be exploited to drive the change of parameters.

Example—Foams, Liquids, Floating Solids, Fluids in Motion

These selectively pass large objects.  They may stop gases, other liquids and very small objects.  Consider using inert materials[32] to perform this.  In this example, evolving gases from a machining process are stopped by a foam barrier.  The foam is TRANSPARENT to large objects and OPAQUE to small objects.

The difference of (inertia of force) between (large objects) and (small objects) will change the (separator material) transparency from transparent to opaque.  The (inertia or relative force) will be exploited to drive the change of parameters.

59 Machining Through FoamNote that whenever small inertial forces occur, there is a large resistance to transmit the small inertia body.  Whenever large inertial forces occur there is a small resistance to transmit the large inertia body.  This can also be a separation in space.  Wherever there is a large inertia force, there is a small resistance to the large inertia body. Everywhere else, there is a high resistance to small inertia bodies.

Practice—The Cover That Wasn’t

Method

The (element) is formed from (a transformable structure—consult the table). The (element) is (state A) during (condition A), thus making it (setting A).  The (element) is (state B) during (condition B), thus making it (setting B).  (The transformation) is operated near (critical point) by (method).

60 Use of Critical Points

Explanation

This generally involves changing the “state” of the bulk properties of the element[33], in order to change from one conflicting property to the next.  Note that broad definition of “states” which contains much more than the transition between solids, liquids and gases.  The current list is not exhaustive.  If you need more ways, go to the table of knobs and look under changing bulk properties.  A field may change “state” by transformation to another frequency.

The transformation should occur near the critical point for maximum effect.  For instance, if the transformation is from liquid to gas, operating near the boiling point would allow the transformation to occur with less addition of energy.  The Solution Standards give a number of practical suggestions for use of phase transitions. [34]

Example—Soda Container

A soda container must be CLOSED completely in order to store or contain a liquid.  It must be OPEN during consumption of the beverage.

61 Soda CansThe (can seal) is formed from (an easily yielding material). The (can seal) is (unbroken) during (storage), thus making it (closed).  The (can seal) is (broken) during (consumption), thus making it (open). (Yielding) is operated near (nearly torn or yield point) by (providing leverage at the point of tearing).

Example—Sponge

A cleaning product needs to be ATTRACTIVE to small debris during cleaning and NOT ATTRACTIVE to small debris during storage.

62 Foam RubberThe (cleaning product) is formed from (a sponge). The (cleaning product) is (moist) during (collection of small debris) thus making it (attractive).  The (cleaning product) is (dry) during (storage) thus making it (not attractive). (Adhesion) is operated near (critical surface tension) by (keeping slightly damp).

Example—Chopsticks

Chopsticks need to be JOINED for ease of dispensing in a vending machine and SEPARATE for use while eating.

63 Chop SticksThe (element) is formed from (an easily broken structure). The (chopsticks) are (unbroken) during (storage in vending machine) thus making them (joined).  The (chopsticks) are (broken) during (preparation for consumption) thus making them (separate). (Breaking) is operated near (yield) by (creating a high stress crack initiation).

Example—Foam Soap

It is common for people to take much more soap than needed when dispensing soap from a liquid soap dispenser.  During storage, the soap needs to be CONCENTRATED in order to take up little room. During use, it needs to be UN-CONCENTRATED in order to be easily spread on the hands.

64 Foam SoapThe (soap) is formed from (a foaming liquid). The (soap) is (liquid) during (storage) thus making it (concentrated).  The (soap) is (foam) during (use) thus making it (un-concentrated). (Foaming) is operated near (critical surface tension) by (proper dilution of the soap).

Practice—Too Flexible

Various diameters of a thin rubber boot (which covers part of a car shift mechanism) must be measured with great accuracy at several points.  Unfortunately, the micrometer which is used deforms the boot during the measurement.  This makes the measurement inaccurate.   How can the boot be measured more accurately?  The Boot Flexibility Needs to be FLEXIBLE & STIFF. Resolve the Contradiction using the principle that you have just learned.

Practice—Radiation Treatment

Practice—A Post and an Outpost

Practice—The Cover That Wasn’t

Practice—Special Delivery II

Method65 Transformation Using Fields

Using (physical phenomenon including pneumatic or hydraulic structures[36]) allows us to add a (associated field from the table) to the (element) during (condition A), makes it (setting A).  (Removing or reversing) the (field) during (condition B) makes it (setting B).

49 Table of Fields

Explanation

In the previous section, we considered changing the bulk properties of the element in question to change from one knob setting to the other.  In this case, we consider the fields associated with the element in order to change between the conflicting attributes.  A Table of Fields is provided.  The turning on and off of fields is a good example of the inventive principle of periodic action[35].

Example—Inflatable Displays

I need displays that EXIST and function as displays and NOT EXIST for easy storage. 

66 Inflatable DisplaysUsing (pneumatic structures) allows us to add a (pressure field) to the (display) during (displaying), makes it (exist).  (Removing) the (pressure field) during (storage) makes it (not exist).

Example—Electric Fence

I need an enclosure fence which must be PAINFUL during contact in order to hold in animals, and must be HARMLESS during non-contact in order to reduce operating costs.

67 Electric FenceUsing (high voltage structures) allows us to add an (electric field) to the (enclosure) during (contact), makes it (painful).  (Removing) the (electric field) during (non-contact) makes it (harmless).

Example—Light Bulb Changer

A mechanical arm is able to reach a light bulb to change it.  The arm allows for a twisting action to turn the bulb.  A device is sought which allows for NOT HOLDING the bulb during positioning and HOLDING the bulb during twisting.

68 Light Bulb ExtractorUsing (pneumatic structures) allows us to add a (pressure field--Vacuum) to the (handle) during (removal), makes it (holding).  (Removing) the (pressure field--Vacuum) during (positioning) makes it (not holding).

Example—Magnetic Clutch

The clutch must be RIGID during energy transfer and FLUID during periods of rest.

69 Magnetic BallsUsing (magnetic fluids) allows us to add a (magnetic field) to the (ferromagnetic balls in the fluid) during (transfer of energy), makes it (rigid).  )Removing) the (magnetic field) during (rest) makes it (fluid).

Example—Grass Trimmer

The trimmer blade needs to be STIFF in order to trim grass and small limbs.  It needs to be FLEXIBLE for easy maintenance and storage.

70 Grass TrimmerUsing (inertia of high velocity bodies) allows us to add an (inertia field) to the (blade) during (trimming grass), makes it (stiff).  (Removing) the (inertia field) during (maintenance and storage) makes it (flexible).

Example—Detection of Food Particles

Food particles must be HIGHLY VISIBLE during inspection to show a child how to improve the brushing of teeth.  The particles should be INVISIBLE at all other times so as to not embarrass the child.

71 Iridescent Food ParticlesUsing (iridescent materials) allows us to add an (ultraviolet field) to the (particles) during (inspection), making it (highly visible).  (Removing) the (ultraviolet field) during (all other times) makes it (invisible).

Common Example—Plating and Electro Polishing

While plating , the metal atoms coming from the solution tend to be attracted to areas of strong electrostatic fields.  Any points on the surface of the metal that has a smaller radius will have higher fields.  After the plating metal attaches itself to the surface, the surface has an even smaller radius which accelerates the process and makes the surface of the metal even more rough.  If the fields were reversed, the opposite would happen and the material would be removed from the peaks.  In order to deposit the plating material, the plated piece should have NEGATIVE polarity.  In order for the surface to be smooth, the plated piece should have POSITIVE polarity.

72 ElectropolishingUsing (reversal of electric fields) allows us to add a (negative electric field) to the (plated piece) during (plating), makes it (positive polarity). (Reversing) the (negative electric field) during (polishing) makes it (positive polarity).

Example--Welding

A strong light is required to ILLUMINATE the melt during an arc welding demonstration film.   We should NOT ILLUMINATE the melt in order to see the arc in the film.

73 StrobeUsing (a bright illumination or strobe light) allows us to add a (light field) to the (melt) during (frames showing the melt), makes it (illuminated).  Removing or reversing the (light) during (frames showing the arc) makes it (not illuminated).

Practice—Soft Water

Practice—Free-Fall Plating

Practice—Special Delivery II

Practice—The Beat Goes On

Method75 Rolling and Stretching

The (element) is formed from (expanding structure—see table).  The (element) is (state A) during (condition A), thus making it (setting A).  The (element) is (state B) during (condition B), thus making it (setting B).

Explanation

74 Kinds of Unrolling and StretchingThis transformation considers the manipulation of one particular field, stress fields.  The element is made to change shape radically by the application of external forces.  Note the box to the right allows for a variety of constructions which respond readily to external forces, changing their area, volume or shape.  This is probably an offshoot of transformable states which is very commonly used.

Example—Parachute

The air brake must be LOW DRAG during freefall.  It must be HIGH DRAG during breaking.

76 ParachuteThe (air brake) is formed from (fabric).  The (air brake) is (compacted) during (freefall), thus making it (low drag).  The (airbrake) is (expanded) during (braking), thus making it (high drag).

Method77 Input Output

The (elements) to be operated upon must be (setting A) during (condition A).  A transformation of (phenomena or action) changes the (elements) to (setting B) during (condition B).

Explanation

An object has something with one property coming in and then later, the opposite property exiting.   Identify a means (function) which allows for the adjustment of the property between the input and the output.  This means that a physical phenomenon needs to be identified and a tool provided to deliver this physical phenomena.  This method is primarily used for the transformation of a flow of objects, fields or information.

Example—Voice Modulation

A male story teller relates the story in a MALE voice.  Later he would like to interject a WOMAN’S voice into the story during the televised transmission of the show. 

78 Voice ModulationThe (voice) to be operated upon must be (male) during (actual story telling).  A transformation of (voice modulation) changes the (voice) to (female) during (transmission of the show).

Example—Mixing of Liquids

The compounds must be procured and stored as SEPARATE constituents.  Later, they must be MIXED for consumption.

79 Mixing of LiquidsThe (compounds) to be operated upon must be (separate) during (procurement and storage).  A transformation of (mixing blades) changes the (compounds) to (mixed) during (fabrication of the final product).

Example—Signal Separation

The signals must be MIXED in order to send them from the same transmitter.  They must be SEPARATED in order to understand the content.

80 Signal SeparationThe (signal) to be operated upon must be (mixed) during (transmission).  A transformation of (signal filtering) changes the (signal) to (separate) during (logging and use of the information).

Example—Spook Alley

People must be calm during travel between amusements so that they can enjoy looking around and eating.  They must later be SCARED in order to feel that they have properly celebrated Halloween.

81 Spook AlleyThe (patrons) to be operated upon must be (calm) during (travel and eating).  A transformation of (scary costumes and actions) changes the (patrons) to (scared) during (travel through the amusement).

Practice—Blood Brain Barrier

Method83 Pop Cans

The (element) is formed from (expendable structure—see table).  The (element) is (state A) during (condition A), thus making it (existing).  The (element) is (state B) during (condition B), thus making it (non- existing).

Explanation

This transformation us mostly used for specific situations where an object must and must not exist.  The object does in fact exist and is then removed when it is no longer required.  Special consideration should be given to make sure that the disposed object is environmentally friendly and uses the least amount of material possible. 

Example—Soda Container

A soda container opening must EXIST in order to allow consumption of the beverage and it must NOT EXIST in order to safely contain the beverage.

T83 Pop Canshe (can seal) is formed from (an easily yielding material). The (can opening) is (open) during (consumption), thus making it (existing).  The (can seal) is (closed) during (storage), thus making it (not existing).

Method85 Using Carriers

During (condition A) (an inexpensive carrier[42] object or substance) which is (setting A) is (attached to, surrounding or mixed with)  (segmented or individual) (elements) which are (setting B) thus loaning its property and making the combination (setting A).  No carrier is used during (condition B) making the (element) (setting B).

84 Types of Intermediaries

Explanation

An intermediary[37] is a carrier that is temporarily used and may be disposed[38] [39] of when the need is past.  For the time that it is used, the combination of objects has the property of the carrier or intermediary. The intermediary or carrier lends its attribute to the element that it is attached to. The carrier can be attached and later removed or it can be attached later.

One or more objects with one property are closely associated with a “carrier” substance having the conflicting desirable property.  The whole takes on the desired property of the carrier. Using carriers is one of the most powerful methods of changing the properties of objects. 

If the property of the element is desirable, then they are arranged in the carrier in such a way that they are expressed at the smaller “micro” scale.  Thus, both properties may be expressed or an undesirable property of the element may be hidden.

Using a carrier requires the addition of new substances which is not desirable, so try to find the least expensive carrier possible.

Simply attaching a carrier to the object may be sufficient to allow the carrier to “loan” its properties.  This can be done in a variety of ways shown in the orange box, such as simply touching, being clamped together, adhering together, etc.

Objects with one property can be nested[40] inside another object having the conflicting desirable property.  The whole takes on the desired property of the carrier. The carrier can be solid, liquid or gas.  Consider some of the more unusual carriers in the orange box.

A segmented[41] carrier having a desirable property may be mixed with segmented or multiplied elements having the opposing undesirable property.  The whole takes on the properties of the carrier.  The orange box shows some of the more unusual carrier mixtures possible. Refer to these as you consider resolving your contradiction.  The term “segmented carrier” has reference to liquid molecules, fibers and even larger elements such as laminate sheets. Consider finer and finer scales down to sub-atomic particles.

Example—Pile Driving

A pile needs to be SHARP during driving and BLUNT during supporting.

86 Pile Driver Pumped ConcreteDuring (supporting) (concrete) which is (blunt) is (attached to)  (individual) (piles) which are (sharp) thus loaning its property and making the combination (blunt).  No carrier is used during (driving) making the (pile) (sharp).

Concrete is pumped into the pile and extrudes out holes, making the pile BLUNT.

Example—Paint Roller

A roller needs to be SHORT while painting lower than can be easily reached and LONG while painting higher walls. 

87 Paint Roller HandlesDuring (painting high walls) (a pole) which is (long) is (attached to)  (individual) (rollers) which are (short)  thus loaning its property and making the combination (long).  No carrier is used during (painting at eye level) making the (roller) (short).

Example—Porcelain Mold

The slurry must be SUPPORTED in order to be formed into many shapes.  The slurry must be UNSUPPORTED in order to be fired. 

88 Porcellain MoldsDuring (forming and drying) (A mold) which is (supported) is (attached to)  (segmented) (slurry) which are (unsupported) thus loaning its property and making the combination (supported).  No carrier is used during (firing) making the (slurry) (unsupported).

Example—Constitution

The Constitution needs to be passed RAPIDLY in order to keep a bickering union of states together. This constitution needs to be passed SLOWLY AND DELIBERATELY in order to provide a firm foundation for the future of the union.

D89 Constitutionuring (subsequent deliberations) (a Bill of Rights) which is (slow and deliberate passing speed) is (attached to)  (the individual) (constitution) which is (rapidly passing) thus loaning its property and making the combination (slow and deliberate passing speed).  No carrier is used during (writing the constitution) making the (constitution) (rapidly passing).

Example—Increasing Group Knowledge

A group of people must be KNOWLEDGEABLE on a certain subject in order to answer questions from a highly influential group of customers. The group must be UNKNOWLEDGEABLE on the subject at all other times because it requires special education thus making the group too expensive.

90 Increasing Group KnowledgeWhile (questioning by influential customers) (a knowledgeable person) which is (high knowledge) is (attached to)  (the individual) (group) which is (unknowledgeable) thus loaning its property and making the combination (knowledgeable).  No carrier is used while (customers are not present) making the (group) (unknowledgeable).

Example—Soluble Compounds

A chemical compound must be INSOLUBLE in water during transport.  In the event that an accident occurs, the compound will not be dissolved in water and can be more easily collected.  During the actual application, the molecule must be SOLUBLE in water. 

91 Soluable CompoundsDuring (transportation) (an insoluble compound) which is (insoluble in water) is (attached to)  (individual) (compounds) which are (soluble in water) thus loaning its property and making the combination (insoluble in water).  No carrier is used during (use of the compound) making the (compound) (soluble in water).

Example—Pile Driving

The pile must be SHARP during driving and BLUNT during supporting.

During (supporting) (a concrete bulb) which is (blunt) is (attached to)  (individual) (piles) which are (blunt) thus loaning its property and making the combination (blunt).  No carrier is used during (driving) making the (pile) (blunt).

92 Pile Driving Exploding Tip using concreteFirst, the pile is SHARP for driving.  Later the tip of the pile is exploded and concrete is pumped into the resulting cavity.  The concrete carries the property of bluntness and makes the whole pile BLUNT.

Example—Engraving Thin Metallic Plates

The plane material must be FLEXIBLE in order to form it into the shape of a plate.  The plate material must be INFLEXIBLE in order to scribe intricate engravings. 

93 Engraving Thin Metal PlatesDuring (engraving) (tar) which is (stiff) is (attached to)  (individual) (plates) which are (flexible) thus loaning its property and making the combination (stiff).  No carrier is used during (forming the plate) making the (plate) (flexible).

Example—Burst Disks

During low pressure operation, the orifice needs to CONSTRAIN the gas.  When the pressure becomes excessive, the orifice needs to be UNCONSTRAINED.

94 Burst DisksDuring (low pressure operation) (a weakened barrier) which is (constraining) is (attached to)  (individual) (orifices) which are (un-constraining) thus loaning its property and making the combination (constraining).  No carrier is used during (high pressure operation) making the (orifice) (un-constraining).

The container is weakened in such a way that if the pressure becomes too high, it bursts and allows gas to freely flow.

Example—Paper Mache

The paper mache must be SUPPORTED in order to be formed.  The paper mache must be UNSUPPORTED in order to be filled with candy.

95 Paper Mache BalloonsDuring (forming the mache) (a balloon) which is (supporting) is (attached to)  (segmented) (mache) which are (un-supporting) thus loaning its property and making the combination (supporting).  No carrier is used during (filling) making the (mache) (unsupported).

Example—Disposable Caps

96 Disposable CapsDuring use, the bottle must be CONSTRAINING to hold the liquid inside.  During storage, the bottle must be UN-CONSTRAINING for easy pouring.

During (storage) (an inexpensive plastic cap) which is (constraining) is (attached to)  (individual) (bottles) which are (un-constraining) thus loaning its property and making the combination (constraining).  No carrier is used during (pouring) making the (bottle) (un-constraining).

Example—Pile Driving

A SHARP pile is required during driving.  A BLUNT pile is required during supporting.

97 Pile Driving Blunt ChangeoverDuring (supporting) (a blunt pile) which is (blunt) is (attached to)  (individual) (piles) which are (sharp) thus loaning its property and making the combination (blunt).  No carrier is used during (driving) making the (pile) (sharp).

Example—Gel Products

A compound must be LIQUID in order to be easily mixed and processed with other compounds.  It must be SOLID in order to hold its shape while being applied by hand.

98 Gel ProductsDuring (application by hand) (solid particles) which are (solid and formable) are (mixed with)  (segmented) (compounds) which are (liquid) thus loaning its property and making the combination (solid and formable).  No carrier is used during (mixing) making the (compound) (liquid).

Example—Group Cohesion

In order to educate the group on many topics, it is necessary that the group come with many opinions that they freely share with each other.  This makes the group NOT COHESIVE.  The group has an important mission that they need to be united on.  This makes it necessary that the group be COHESIVE.

99 Group CohesionDuring (forming of the group) (people of different opinions) which are (non-cohesive) are (mixed with)  (individual) (groups) which are (cohesive)  thus loaning its property and making the combination (not cohesive).  No carrier is used during (the mission) making the (group) (cohesive).

Example—Fishing Weight

In order to cast the baited hook a long distance, the baited hook needs to be HEAVY.  In order for the baited hook to lie on the surface of the water, the baited hook needs to be LIGHT.

100 Fishing WeightDuring (casting) (a cheap weight connected with an inexpensive dissolving tablet) which is (heavy) is (attached to)  (individual) (bait hook) which is (light) thus loaning its property and making the combination (heavy).  No carrier is used during (the hook lying in the water) making the (hook) (light).

The weight is attached with a dissolving tablet.  When it is thrown into the water, the tablet dissolves.

Example—Sandwiches

At large gatherings, the sandwiches must be UNIFORM for easy handling and dissemination.  However, the individual tastes of those who come are not uniform.  It is necessary that the sandwiches are NOT UNIFORM.

101 SandwichesDuring (consumption of the sandwiches) (bread) which is (uniform) is (surrounding) (individual) (condiments) which are (not uniform) thus loaning its property and making the combination (uniform).  No carrier is used during (formation of the sandwich) making the (condiments) (non-uniform).

Example—Composites

PLASTIC laminates are required during forming to create a stiff and light structure.  Thin METAL laminates are required to absorb electromagnetic radiation during the use of the product.

102 CompositesDuring (operation) (metallic laminates) which are (metal) are (mixed with)  (segmented) (plastic laminates) which are (plastic) thus loaning its property and making the combination (metallic).  No carrier is used during (forming of the plastic) making the (plastic laminates) (plastic).

Example—Confusing the Opposition

In order to confuse the group, it is necessary to convey a message which is normally CONFLICTING with the group purposes.  In order to unite the group, the messages should NOT CONFLICT with the group purposes.

103 Confusing the OppositionDuring (confusing the opposition) (a lot of conflicting messages) which are (conflicting with the group purposes) are (mixed with)  (segmented) (overall message) which are (not conflicting with the group purposes) thus loaning its property and making the combination (conflicting with the group purposes).  No carrier is used during (the time to rally the group) making the (overall message) (not conflicting with group purposes).

Practice—Metallic Film

Practice—Special Delivery

Practice—Two Tining Rake

Practice—The Farmer’s Mush

Practice—Too Flexible

Practice—Storing Almost Protons 

Practice—Blood Brain Barrier

Practice—A Slight Polishing

Method105 Merging Interaction

Segmentation is (allowed and accomplished by what method or not allowed).  During (condition A) several (segmented or individual) (elements) have the property of being (setting A) while unified or interacting through (a field, mediator, method or unified arrangement).  During (condition B) the unifying interaction is absent making them (setting B).

104 Merging Interaction

49 Table of Fields

Explanation

The term “merging” will be used more broadly to indicate “interacting” with individual or segmented[43] objects.  The individual objects or segments have one desired property and the interacting objects have the opposing property.  Such interactions can be achieved with the fields shown in the Table of Fields.

 A mediating substance or “mediator” can also allow the individual elements to interact with each other.  The mediating substance or field typically operates at the macro scale while the individual elements operate at the micro scale.  Merging allows for action at a distance as well as the potential of touching, nesting[44], interweaving, attaching and mixing.  We also allow for fields which repulse rather than attract.

In order to drive to ideality, we would like to use existing fields if possible.  An example of this would be to make the elements interlink.  Mechanical fields already exist; why not allow them to perform the act of merging?

As in all of the merging methods, it may be necessary to break the element down into multiple pieces that can then interact.  When an element is segmented into multiple elements, this creates new resources and properties such as adjustability.

Example—Window Shade

The shade is a LARGE & SQUARE while blocking light through the window.  The shade is SMALL & ROUND while allowing light through the window.

106 Window ShadeSegmentation is (allowed and accomplished manufacturing methods).  During (light transmission) several (segmented) (magnetic shade elements) have the property of being (small and round) while unified or interacting through (a magnetic field).  During (blocking light transmission) the unifying interaction is absent making them (large and square).

Example—Picture

A picture must be COMPACT while stored in a box.  The picture must be EXPANSIVE while being viewed as a picture.

107 PuzzleSegmentation is (allowed and accomplished by manufacturing methods).  During (construction) several (segmented) (picture pieces) have the property of being (expanded) while unified or interacting through (an interlinking stress field).  During (storage) the unifying interaction is absent making them (compact).

Example—Bungee Cords

Binding cords need to be LONG while securing large loads and SHORT while securing small loads. 

108 Bungee CordsSegmentation is (not allowed).  During (securing large loads) several (individual) (cords) have the property of being (long) while unified or interacting through (mechanical interlocking).  During (securing small loads) the unifying interaction is absent making them (short).

Example—Creating Group Interaction

The group must be ISOLATED while contemplating individual solutions to a problem in order to not be influenced by others or groupthink.  The group must be COMMUNICATIVE in order to arrive at a consensus to go forward.

109 Group InteractionSegmentation is (not allowed).  During (coming to a consensus) several (individual) (group members) have the property of being (communicative) while unified or interacting through (a field of communication).  During (contemplation of solutions) the unifying interaction is absent making them (isolated).

Example—Merging Polymer Chains

During conditions requiring low damping, the fluid in the rotational damper has LOW VISCOSITY.  During conditions requiring high damping the fluid has a HIGH VISCOSITY.

110 Merging Polymer ChainsSegmentation is (not allowed).  During (high damping) several (individual) (polymer chains) have the property of being (high viscosity) while unified or interacting through (an electrostatic field).  During (low damping) the unifying interaction is absent making them (low viscosity).

Example—Pile Driving

The pile must be SHARP while driving and BLUNT while supporting.

111 Merging Blunt and Sharp PileSegmentation is (not allowed).  During (supporting) several (individual) (piles) have the property of being (blunt) while unified or interacting through (a mechanical nesting field).  During (driving) the interaction is absent making them (sharp).

Example—Pile Driving

We need the pile to be SHARP while driving and we need it to be BLUNT while supporting. 

112 Exploding Tip Pile DriverSegmentation is (allowed and accomplished by an explosive charge).  During (driving) several (individual) (piles) have the property of being (sharp) while unified or interacting through (a mechanical field).  During (supporting) the unifying interaction is absent making them (blunt).

Example—Mincing Garlic

Fresh garlic has a very strong odor. Storing garlic in its own natural wrapper provides a very WEAK smell.  This is perfect for storing the garlic in a living area.  During cooking, it needs a STRONG smell to impart taste.

113 Garlic ClovesSegmentation is (allowed and accomplished by cutting or crushing).  During (storage) several (individual) (garlic segments) have the property of being (weak) while unified or interacting through (mechanical field).  During (cooking) the unifying interaction is absent making them (strong).

Example—an Easily Swallowed Pill

114 Powder and PillMany medications must be EASILY DISSOLVED in the stomach.  Unfortunately, many medications that easily dissolve in the stomach also easily dissolve in the mouth, which creates a strong and undesirable taste.  The pill should be DIFFICULT TO DISSOLVE in the mouth.

Segmentation is (allowed and accomplished by a tasty binder that is dissolved by saliva).  During (swallowing) several (individual) (pills) have the property of being (difficult to dissolve) while unified or interacting through (unifying mechanical field).  During (digestion) the unifying interaction is absent making them (easily dissolved).

Example—Small Scripts

115 Large and Small ScriptsWhile practicing for a play, the actors are given play scripts to learn the parts, but there is a problem.  The speaking parts and the choreography need to be learned very rapidly.  The FULL script is required for the actors to understand where they perform relative to everyone else, but it is not practical to carry the full script with them when they are dancing about the stage.  The scripts must be PARTIAL while they are dancing.

Segmentation is (allowed and accomplished by cutting them out).  During (learning) several (individual) (scripts) have the property of being (full) while unified or interacting through (a unified arrangement).  During (dancing) the unifying interaction is absent making them (partial).

Example—Massive Table

116 Massive and Light TablesWe need a MASSIVE table to give a feel of stability.  The table must be LIGHT in order to be moved from time to time.

Segmentation is (allowed and accomplished by designing the table as separate pieces).  During (use) several (segmented) (table pieces) have the property of being (massive) while unified or interacting through (an interlocking table or fastening elements).  During (transportation) the unifying interaction is absent making them (light).

Example—Die Processing

117 Die ProcessingA ROUND wafer is round because the ingot from which it is produced is round.  The individual die are SQUARE .

Segmentation is (allowed and accomplished by cleaving).  During (die processing) several (segmented) (wafers) have the property of being (round) while unified or interacting through (a unifying mechanical field).  During (packaging) the unifying interaction is absent making them (square).

Example—Cleaving DNA

118 Cleaving DNAIn order for DNA to be extracted, it must be COMPLETE molecules.  In order to multiply the various parts of the DNA, it must be PARTIAL segments.

Segmentation is (allowed and done by chemically snipping the DNA).  During (extraction) several (segmented) (DNA) have the property of being (complete) while unified or interacting through (unifying chemical bonds).  During (multiplication) the unifying interaction is absent making them (partial).

119 Solid and Liquid AcidExample—Acid

At first, the acid is in CRYSTALLINE form for safe transportation and storage.  Later it is in LIQUID for use in chemical reactions.

Segmentation is (allowed and accomplished dissolving).  During (storage and transport) several (segmented) (acid molecules) have the property of being (crystalline) while unified or interacting through (chemical bonds).  During (reacting) the unifying interaction is absent making them (liquid).

Example—Separation of Signals

We need ONE SIGNAL because we have only one transmitter, but we need SEVERAL SIGNALS because we need to convey different types of information.

Segmentation is (allowed and accomplished by signal filters).  During (transmission) several (segmented) (signals) have the property of being (one signal) while unified or interacting through (a unifying arrangement).  During (viewing or listening) the unifying interaction is absent making them (several signals).

Example—Law Enforcement Rules

120 Law Enforcement RulesA group of law enforcement officers are more efficiently guided by CENTRAL CONTROL when they are in close proximity.  When they are performing their duty, it becomes more effective for the officers to be AUTONOMOUS rather than waiting on a central control to tell them what to do in ever-changing and dangerous circumstances.

Segmentation is (not allowed).  During (close proximity) several (individual) (officers) have the property of being (centrally controlled) while unified or interacting through (a communication field).  During (performing duty) the unifying interaction is absent making them (autonomous).

Note that giving the officers rules helps them to be more autonomous.

Example—Packing Words for Transport

121 Packing Words for TransportWhile conveying the data, the data should be in COMPACT form.  During calculations, the digital data should be EASILY MANIPULATED.

Segmentation is (not allowed).  During (transport) several (individual) (bits) have the property of being (compact) while unified or interacting through (a unified arrangement).  During (calculation) the unifying interaction is absent making them (easily manipulated).

Chemistry Example—Non-Corrosive By-Products

122 Corrosive and Non CorrosiveAfter a CORROSIVE chemical is used in a reaction, there are usually small amounts of the corrosive components that remain in the byproducts. The byproducts are used in other reactions making it necessary to store them for long periods of time.  Unfortunately, they have a tendency to leak or corrode nearby articles.  The by-products need to be NON-CORROSIVE.

Segmentation is (not allowed).  During (storage) several (individual) (compounds) have the property of being (non corrosive) while unified or interacting through (chemical bonds).  During (further reactions) the unifying interaction is absent making them (corrosive).

Example—Avoiding Group Think

123 Avoiding Group ThinkIn order to gain opinions that are more DIVERSE, the opinions should be gathered while the group is separated.  In order to come to a final consensus, the group ideas need to be UNIFORM.

 Several (people) can be used.  During (the generation of a consensus opinion) the grouped (individuals) are (uniform).  Separating the (people) before (idea generation) makes them (diverse).

Segmentation is (not allowed).  During (generation of a consensus opinion) several (individual) (people) have the property of being (uniform) while unified or interacting through (a communication field).  During (idea generation) the unifying interaction is absent making them (diverse).

Practice—Two Tining Rake

Practice—Metallic Film

Practice—Take Smaller Bites

Practice—Fish to the Rescue

Practice—A Slight Polishing

Practice—Two Tining Rake

Practice—Special Delivery

Practice—Storing Almost Protons 

Practice—Special Delivery II

124 Merging CounteringMethod

Elements are configured, oriented or designed to oppose each other by (method).  Separating the (elements) during (condition A) makes them (setting A).  During (condition B) the merged (elements) oppose each other making them (setting B).

Explanation

Here, thought is given as to how objects may be configured, oriented or designed to oppose each other[45].  Even though they can oppose each other, while separate, they all have the same setting.  When combined, they take on the opposing property.

Example—Opposing Messages

125 Merging Opposing MessagesThe messages need to be VERY POTENT in order to create discussion among the students.  In order to help the students calm down and see both sides of the issue, they should have NULL POTENCY.

Elements are configured, oriented or designed to oppose each other by (making them of strongly opposing opinions).  Separating the (messages) during (discussion) makes them (very potent).  During (group discussion) the merged (messages) oppose each other making them (null potency).

Example—Pile Driving

126 Driving Piles at AnglesDuring driving the pile needs to be SHARP in order to drive fast.  During supporting, the pile needs to be BLUNT in order to support well.

Elements are configured, oriented or designed to oppose each other by (orienting them to oppose each other).  Separating the (piles) during (driving) makes them (sharp).  During (supporting) the merged (piles) oppose each other making them (blunt).

Practice—The Beat Goes On

127 Merging ExtractionMethod

The (element) has several identifiable pieces.  During (condition A) the (crucial piece) is separated making it (Setting A).  During (condition B) the (crucial piece) is reunited making it (Setting B).

Explanation

The principle of extraction[46] also occurs in Separation in Space.  During separation in space, one part of the element in question takes on one property while the rest of the element takes on the opposing properties.  This is different from segmentation/merging tools where the whole takes on one property while separate and the opposite property when merged.  This principle is particularly handy when the system can be broken into functional units.  A crucial part of the original element is made easily removable.  During one condition the system is separated in space using the principle of extraction.  The separated part has one property and the rest has the opposing property.  When the elements are remerged, the extracted element resumes the opposing property of the rest of the system.

Common Example—Refueling of Aircraft in Flight

128 Refueling Aircraft in FlightThe fueling system must be EXTENDED during refueling in order to contact the refueling aircraft.  The fueling system must be RETRACTED during normal flight in order to have low drag.

The (fueling system) has several identifiable pieces.  During (refueling) the (intake nozzle) is separated making it (extended).  During (normal flight) the (intake nozzle) is reunited making it (retracted).

Example—Newspaper Coupons

129 Newspaper CouponsThe newspaper must be AT HOME for convenient reading.  The newspaper must be AT THE STORE for reference while shopping.

The (newspaper) has several identifiable pieces.  During (shopping) the (product ads) are separated making it (at the store).  During (reading) the (newspaper) is reunited making it (at home).

Common Example—Prison

130 Common CriminalA time may be reached in which some individuals prove to society that they are not capable of such freedoms.  A convicted felon is dangerous and is REJECTED  by society while being reformed . Everyone needs the chance to prove themselves capable of living with others. If a felon is reformed, he needs to be NURTURED by society in order to integrate.    

The (society) has several identifiable pieces.  During (reformation) the (convicted felon) is separated making it (rejected).  During (probation) the (felon) is reunited making it (nurtured).

Example—Digital Signals

131 Digital SignalsIn order for all electromagnetic signals to travel through space, they must live part of their life as “analog” signals.  These are continuous waveforms that travel in predictable ways and maintain their form in space and time.  Digital waveforms require square features which are actually the combination of many continuous waveforms.  As they travel through space, the change of amplitude of these various components are less predictable.  In order to travel in an orderly manner, the waveform shape must be SMOOTH or continuous.  In order for the waveform to be useful, it must be SQUARE or discontinuous.

The (signal) has several identifiable pieces.  During (use) the (extracted peaks) are separated making it (square or discontinuous).  During (transmission) the (extracted peaks) are reunited making it (smooth and continuous).

Practice—Super Yacht

132 Adjustable NumbersMethod

Multiple (elements) are available for adjustable use.  During (condition A) many (elements) are used to give (Setting A).  During (condition B) few elements are used to give (Setting B).

Explanation

An element is segmented or multiple elements are used in order to make the system adjustable[47].  The multiple parts can be brought into use in the number which is sufficient to be adequate for the conditions.  This is quite similar to rearranging and unfolding and to merging except that the number of elements to be merged are adjustable and usually some are reserved for use when they are necessary.

Example—Adjustable Rocket Thrust

133 Adjustable Rocked ThrustThe rocket only requires LOW THRUST for a small payload.  Later it requires HIGH THRUST for large payloads.

Multiple (thrusters) are available for adjustable use.  During (large payloads) many (thrusters) are used to give (high thrust).  During (small payloads) few elements are used to give (low thrust).

Example—Adjustable Train Length

134 Adjustable Train LengthThe train needs HIGH CAPACITY for transporting large amounts of goods.  It requires LOW CAPACITY for lesser goods.

Multiple (cars) are available for adjustable use.  During (carrying lots of goods) many (cars) are used to give (high capacity).  During (carrying few goods) few elements are used to give (low capacity).

Example—Adjustable Beds

135 Adjustable BedsLOW SLEEPING CAPACITY is required for few patients.  HIGH SLEEPING CAPACITY are required for multiple patients.

Multiple (beds) are available for adjustable use.  During (multiple patients) many (beds) are used to give (high sleeping capacity).  During (few patients) few elements are used to give (low sleeping capacity).

Example—Adjustable Table Size

136 Adjustable TablesA LARGE table is required for many guests and a SMALL table is required for few guests.

Multiple (table leafs) are available for adjustable use.  During (many guests) many (table leafs) are used to give (a large table).  During (few guests) few elements are used to give (a small table).

Example—Adjustable Work Force

137 Adjustable WorkforceDuring high sales HIGH PRODUCTION THROUGHPUT is required.  During low sales LOW PRODUCTION THROUGHPUT is required.

Multiple (workers) are available for adjustable use.  During (high sales) many (workers) are used to give (high production throughput).  During (low sales) few elements are used to give (low production throughput).

This is effectively accomplished through the use of contract workers.

Example—Adjustable Instructions

138 Adjustable InstructionsThe instructions need to be SIMPLE in order to be understood by observers of a contest.  They need to be DETAILED in order to be understood by the judges of the contest.

Multiple (instructions) are available for adjustable use.  During (judging) many (instructions) are used to give (detailed).  During (observation) few elements are used to give (understanding).

Method139 Readjusting 2 objects

Two distinct (elements) are used.  During (condition A) the (setting A) one is used.  During (condition B) the (setting B) one is used.

Explanation

Use two separate objects.  The objects are the same in most respects except that they have conflicting properties.  First one is used and then the other.  This method of separating in time is often overlooked because it seems too simple.  It is more powerful than it looks.

Example—Gas Torch

140 Two TorchesA LARGE flame is required for cutting thick plates.  A SMALL flame is required for cutting thin plates.

Two distinct (flames) are used.  During (cutting thick plates) the (large) one is used.  During (cutting thin plates) the (small) one is used.

Example—Different Types of Signals

141 Two Different SignalsAn ANALOG signal is used to transmit long distances.  A DIGITAL signal is used to transmit short distances.

Two distinct (signals) are used.  During (long distance transmission) the (analog) one is used.  During (short distance transmission) the (digital) one is used.

Example—Sand Paper

141 SandpaperCOARSE sandpaper is required to shape the wood.  FINE sandpaper is required to smooth the surface of the wood.

Two distinct (sandpapers) are used.  During (shaping the wood) the (coarse) one is used.  During (smoothing the wood) the (fine) one is used.

Example—Pile Driving

142 Two Different PilesA SHARP pile is required during driving.  A BLUNT pile is required during supporting.

Two distinct (piles) are used.  During (driving) the (sharp) one is used.  During (supporting) the (blunt) one is used.

Following driving, the sharp pile which is specifically designed for driving is extracted and the blunt one is driven into the resulting hole.  Additionally, the sharp pile can have other features for driving such as strength, low mass and high stiffness which make the pile driving more rapid.

Example—Offsetting Organizations

143 Offsetting OrganizationsA THOROUGH group is required to get the analysis correct.  A SUPERFICIAL group is required to determine what experts should be called in.

Two distinct (groups) are used.  During (determining the experts) the (superficial) one is used.  During (analysis) the (thorough) one is used.

Example—Offsetting Messages

144 Offsetting messagesThe message needs to be DIRECT to the group to make sure it is understood and it needs to be INDIRECT to the individual to be kind.

Two distinct (messages) are used.  During (group meeting) the (direct) one is used.  During (individual meetings) the (indirect) one is used.

Example—Different Compounds

145 Polar and Non Polar CompoundsA NON-POLAR solvent must be used to dissolve the grease.  A POLAR solvent must be used to remove the salt residue.

Two distinct (solvents) are used.  During (grease removal) the (non-polar) one is used.  During (salt removal) the (polar) one is used.

Practice—Take Smaller Bites

Method146 Reorienting Non Uniform

Part of a single (element) is (Setting A) while another part is (Setting B).  During (condition A) the non-uniform (element) is oriented so that (Setting A) is emphasized.  During (condition B) the (element) is reoriented so that (Setting B) is emphasized.

Explanation

A single element has both conflicting properties, thus it is not uniform[48].  For one condition, the element is oriented in such a way that one property becomes useful.  For the second condition, it is oriented so that the conflicting property becomes useful.  Some examples of non-uniform properties are levers, standing waves, concentrated additives, especially active additives.

Common Example—Sports Uniforms

147 Red and Blue JerseyIn order to tell the difference between members of one sports team and another, it is helpful to have different color jerseys.  This is especially important during practice where teams may be rearranged frequently for different plays.  Having two jerseys is expensive and requires the constant care of both jerseys.  In this case, the sports jerseys need to be RED and they need to be BLUE.

Part of a single (uniform) is (red) while another part is (blue).  During (playing on one team) the non-uniform (uniform) is oriented so that (red) is emphasized.  During (playing on another team) the (uniform) is reoriented so that (blue) is emphasized.

Common Example—Reinforcing a Point

148 Stories and informationWhile teaching a subject, it is necessary to gain the audience’s attention with a memorable opening story or situation.  As the lesson progresses, it is necessary to give information which may not be as interesting as the opening story.   In order to retain the information, the infromation needs to be reviewed at a later date.  All that may be remembered is the memorable story which is now unattached in the mind of the student.  The reinforced lesson must be both STORIES and INFORMATION

Part of a single (lesson) is (stories) while another part is (information).  During (teaching) the non-uniform (lesson) is oriented so that (information) is emphasized.  During (review) the (lesson) is reoriented so that (stories) are emphasized.

Example—Pile Driving

149 Two Diameter Pile DriverThe pile needs to be SHARP in order to drive rapidly and it needs to be BLUNT in order to give good vertical support.

Part of a single (pile) is (sharp) while another part is (blunt).  During (driving) the non-uniform (pile) is oriented so that (sharp) is emphasized.  During (supporting) the (pile) is reoriented so that (blunt) is emphasized.

By driving the pile, the blunt part comes into play at the right time to ensure that the pile can provide sufficient lateral support.

Practice—Soft Water

Practice—Super Yacht

Practice—Take Smaller Bites

151 Rearranging and Folding PartsMethod

(Multiple or segmented elements) are coordinated together.  During (condition A) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (Setting A).  During (condition B) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (Setting B).

Explanation

150 Different Ways to Fold or hingeAn element is segmented[49] or multiple elements are used.  The multiple parts have one arrangement which gives them one property.  When the parts are rearranged, they take on the conflicting property.  If possible, the changing conditions should cause the transformation to occur.  Nesting[50] parts often allows for pieces to fit compactly together.

Example—Pile Driving

152 Nested PilesThe pile must be SHARP while driving and BLUNT while supporting. 

(Segmented Piles) are coordinated together.  During (driving) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (sharp).  During (supporting) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (blunt).

The pile is made of multiple nested tubes which are shaped into a SHARP point by a cap which sits on top.  Later, the cap is removed and the outer layers are driven until they are flush with the point, thus becoming BLUNT.

Example—Pile Driving

153 Openable Pile TipThe pile must be SHARP while driving and BLUNT while supporting. 

(Segmented Piles) are coordinated together.  During (driving) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (sharp).  During (supporting) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (blunt).

The pile has parts that can be arranged to make it either sharp or blunt.  A mechanism controls the shape.  When the pile is being driven, it is SHARP.  When the pile reaches a certain depth, the mechanism is released and the pile becomes BLUNT with further driving.

Example—Folding Chair

154 Folding ChairA camping chair must be COMPACT in order to be easily transported. During use, a chair typically occupies a LARGE VOLUME.

(Segmented chair elements) are coordinated together.  During (transportation) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (compact).  During (use) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (large volume like a chair).

Example—Self-Adjusting Nut Driver

155 Self Adjusting Nut DriverIn order to be universal, a nut driver must be SHAPE A when a shape A nut is driven.  The driver must be SHAPE B when a shape B nut is used. 

(Segmented driver head elements) are coordinated together.  During (driving a shape A nut) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (shape A).  During (driving a shape B nut) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (shape B).

The nut driver is composed of many pins packed closely together but allowed to retract into case, thus conforming to the shape of nut which is being turned.

Example—Expandable Cup

T156 Expandable Cuphe cup needs to be CUP-SHAPED during drinking and it needs to be COMPACT during transportation and storage.

(Segmented cup pieces) are coordinated together.   During (storage and transportation) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (compact).  During (drinking) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (cup-shaped).

The cup is formed of many nested segments.  The cup can be formed into a CUP SHAPE or collapsed into a COMPACT shape.

Example—Collapsible Pointer

157 Collapsible PointerA pointer needs to be LONG for ease of pointing.  It needs to be SHORT to fit into a pocket.

(Segmented pointer pieces) are coordinated together.  During (storage in pocket) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (short).  During (pointing) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (long).

The pointer is formed of many nested segments.  It can be collapsed to be SHORT or extended to make it LONG.

Example—Escalator

T158 Escalaterhe moving stairs need to be STAIR-SHAPED during lifting.  They need to be FLAT during entry and exit in order for safety.

(Multiple stair steps) are coordinated together.    During (entry or exit) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (flat).  During (lifting) the pieces are oriented so that they are collectively (stair-shaped).

Practice—Take Smaller Bites

Practice—Traffic Light

Practice—A Post and an Outpost

Practice—Two Tining Rake

Method159 Reorienting Attachments

Two (objects) which are (Setting A) and (Setting B) are attached to each other.    During (condition A) the pieces are oriented so that (Setting A) comes into play.  During (condition B) the pieces are oriented so that (Setting B) comes into play.

Explanation

Two objects are attached, each having conflicting properties. In one orientation, the whole has the property of one of the attached elements.  In another orientation the whole has the conflicting property.  Note that this is first a Separation in Space.  The reorientation then makes this into a Separation in Time.

Example—Fixed and Rotating Fixtures

160 Fixed and Rotating FixturesThe gimbal needs to be ROTATABLE during operation A.  It needs to be FIXED during operation B. 

Two (gimbals) which are (rotatable) and (fixed) are attached to each other.  During (condition A) the pieces are oriented so that (rotatable) comes into play.  During (condition B) the pieces are oriented so that (fixed) comes into play.

Example—Pencil and Eraser

161 Pencil and EraserThe writing instrument needs to WRITE while the writing process is proceeding well. It must ERASE when writing errors occur.

Two (writing instruments) which are (writing) and (erasing) are attached to each other.  During (writing) the pieces are oriented so that (writing) comes into play.  During (errors) the pieces are oriented so that (erase) comes into play.

Example—Sales Pitch

162 Sales PitchA new employee needs to be able to give SALES PITCH A when an impulsive customer enters the showroom and SALES PITCH B when an analytical customer enters the showroom.

Two (sales pitches) which are (sales pitch A) and (sales pitch B) are attached to each other.    During (impulsive customer) the pieces are oriented so that (sales pitch A) comes into play.  During (analytical customers) the pieces are oriented so that (sales pitch B) comes into play.

Example—Customer Relations

163 Customer RelationsThe effect of meeting a customer meeting another company for the first time can be greatly influenced by whether the customer is introduced to a group with poor customer appeal or to an individual with GOOD CUSTOMER APPEAL.  When the customer is getting to know the capabilities of the company, those with POOR CUSTOMER APPEAL can showcase their abilities without ill effect.

Two (groups) which have (good customer appeal) and (poor customer appeal) are attached to each other.    During (meeting the customer) the pieces are oriented so that (good customer appeal) comes into play.  During (showcasing talents) the pieces are oriented so that (poor customer appeal) comes into play.

Example—Pile Driving

164 Tied together PilesThe pile must be SHARP while driving and BLUNT while supporting.

Two (piles) which are (sharp) and (blunt) are attached to each other.    During (driving) the pieces are oriented so that (sharp) comes into play.  During (supporting) the pieces are oriented so that (blunt) comes into play.

This is a true reorientation because the blunt part does not touch the soil in the beginning.  The act of driving brings the blunt surface into play.

Practice—Two Tining Rake

Method165 Changing Direction

Changing directions of (crucial feature) allows the setting to be changed.  During (condition A) the (crucial feature) is oriented so that (Setting A) comes into play.  During (condition B) the (crucial feature) changes direction so that (Setting B) comes into play.

Explanation

This is accomplished by first separating in direction and then reorienting the directions to change the properties in time.

Example—Pile Driving
 
166 Pile Tip Changing DirectionThe pile must be SHARP while driving and BLUNT while supporting.Changing directions of (the pile point) allows the setting to be changed. 
 
During (driving) the (pile point) is oriented so that (sharp) comes into play.  During (supporting) the (pile point) changes direction so that (blunt) comes into play.
 
Example—Beaker
 
167 BeakersThe beaker must CONSTRAIN THE FLUID for productive work.  The beaker must NOT CONSTRAIN THE FLUID during rinsing.
 
Changing directions of (whole beaker) allows the setting to be changed.  During (productive work) the (beaker) is oriented so that (constraining the fluid) comes into play.  During (rinsing) the (beaker) changes direction so that (not constraining the fluid) comes into play.
 
Example—Rotating Wing Aircraft
 
168 Rotating Wing AircraftThe aircraft needs high UPWARDS LIFT when taking off and landing in order to be able to operate in limited space.  The aircraft requires high LATERAL FORCE when flying in order to move rapidly.
 
Changing directions of (the propeller) allows the setting to be changed.  During (takeoff and landing) the (propeller) is oriented so that (upward lift) comes into play.  During (flying) the (propeller) changes direction so that (lateral force) comes into play.
 
Example—Cylindrical Shape
 
169 Cylindrical ShapeThe object needs to be ROUND during insertion in order to enter the hole and seat properly.  The object needs to be SQUARE so as to not fall into the holes prematurely during assembly preparation.
 
Changing directions of (object) allows the setting to be changed.  During (insertion) the (object) is oriented so that (round) comes into play.  During (assembly preparation) the (object) changes direction so that (square) comes into play.
 
Example—Chopsticks
 
170 ChopsticksThe chopsticks must be SANITARY in order to serve food to people and they must be UNSANITARY since they have been used in people’s mouths.
 
Changing directions of (chopsticks) allows the setting to be changed.  During (serving) the (chopsticks) are oriented so that (sanitary) comes into play.  During (eating) the (chopsticks) changes direction so that (unsanitary) comes into play.
 

172 Copy or FacsimileMethod

The (essential part) of the (element) can be copied into a (copy name—consider the above list). During (condition A) the (copy name) is (Setting A).  During (condition B) the (original) is (Setting B).

Explanation

171 Different Kinds of CopiesThe copy[51] or facsimile has the essential properties of the original object while under one condition.  Later, the original object is required for the condition where the conflicting property is required.

Example—Silk Flowers

173 Silk FlowersDuring the winter the flowers must be COLD TOLERANT.  During the summer the flowers must be NOT COLD TOLERANT because flowers are like that, especially certain varieties.

The (look) of the (flower) can be copied into a (silk flower). During (winter) the (silk flower) is (cold tolerant).  During (summer) the (real flower) is (not cold tolerant).

Example—Training Props

174 MannequinsWhile training emergency response personnel, the people being worked on should be RESILIENT in order not to injure them with incorrect procedures, but they must be FRAGILE during an emergency because this is unavoidable.

The (operation of the lungs and heart) of the (people) can be copied into a (mannequin). During (training) the (mannequin) is (resilient).  During (emergencies) the (accident victim) is (fragile).

Example—Dummy Runs

175 Dummy RunsThe machined parts must be INEXPENSIVE while setting up the machine in order to not waste money on parts that will not be used.  During production the parts must be EXPENSIVE because they come that way and it is unavoidable.

The (part feature) of the (machined parts) can be copied into a (wood block). During (setup) the (dummy piece) is (inexpensive).  During (production) the (machined parts) are (expensive).

Example—Tax Preparation176 Tax Preparation

The tax form must be MESSY during preparations because there will be mistakes and corrections.  The tax return must be LEGIBLE when filed in order to avoid mistakes by those who must process the form.

The (information) of the (tax form) can be copied into a (paper copy). During (preparation) the (paper copy) is (messy).  During (filing) the (tax form) is (legible).

Example—Vaccine

177 VaccineIn order to train the body to fight a disease during treatment, the virus must be HARMLESS so as not to do harm to the body.  When the patient comes into contact with the real virus it will be HARMFUL because that is how viruses really are.

The (outside shape) of the (virus) can be copied into a (vaccine). During (treatment) the (vaccine) is (harmless).  During (contact with the disease) the (virus) is (harmful).

Practice—Too Flexible

Practice—Special Delivery

Method

Go to TRIZ Power Tools-- Reducing Offering Burdens to simplify the resulting addition of functions or substances, objects, etc.

Explanation

Unfortunately, Separation in Time often requires the addition of objects or substance.  This is undesirable from the viewpoint of the ideal use of resources.  For this reason, we may jump to simplifying techniques to remove the drawbacks.

Separate Gradually

Separate Gradually[52] usually begins with one property and ends with the other.  The first actions only yield a partial resolution of the contradiction.  This is different than Separation in Time because during Separation in Time, we strive to change the property from one to the other at once.  Here we are content to do this stepwise, even if it takes only a moment to do this. Following is the test and the various strategies for Separating Gradually.

Test: Will a complete resolution of the contradiction allow starting with (setting A) and ending with (setting B) or its equivalent? If “yes” then try to Separate Gradually.  Otherwise, go to Separate in Space.

Example—Long Distance Swimming

178 SwimmerIn order to train for long swims, it is necessary to have MUCH WATER so that the swimmer does not need to do lots of turns. But this is impractical to do in the pool because there is LITTLE WATER. 

Test: Will a complete resolution of the contradiction allow starting with (little) (water) and ending with (much) (water) or its equivalent? This would be allowable so we will try to separate gradually.

Example—Pile Driver

179 Sharp and Blunt PileThe pile needs to be SHARP while driving and BLUNT while supporting.

Test: Will a complete resolution of the contradiction allow starting with (sharp) (piles) and ending with (blunt) (piles) or their equivalent? This would be allowable so we will try to separate gradually.

Practice—Eternal Sand

Practice—What’s Up Dock

Practice—Log Jam

Method180 Repeated Use

(Setting A) (element) is used over and over which is equivalent to (setting B) (element). (Method of reconditioning) is used to make this happen.

Explanation

A variable is used repeatedly, perhaps after being recovered.  Usually this involves a repeated or circular process which requires a constant or periodic reconditioning of the reused materials to restore them to working condition[53]This means that a physical phenomena needs to be identified which reconditions and a tool to deliver this physical phenomena.

Example—Lap Pool

181 Fan SwimmerIn order to train for long swims, it is necessary to have MUCH water so that the swimmer does not need to do lots of turns. But this is impractical to do in the pool because there is LITTLE water.

(Little) (water) is used over and over which is equivalent to (much) (water).  (Recirculation of the water) is used to make this happen.

Example—Continuous use of Machinery

182 Continuous MachineryIn order to make a lot of parts, many production machines are required. In order to not spend a lot of money, FEW production machines are required.

(Few) (production machines) are used over and over which is equivalent to (many) (production machines).  (Continuous use) is used to make this happen.

This is an example of the useful TRIZ tool of UNINTERRUPTED USEFUL EFFECT.

Example—Space Capsule

183 Space CapsuleIn space a LOT of air is required for the astronauts to breathe.  Unfortunately, there is only a little air available and expanding the amount of compressed air would increase the weight of the capsule too much.

(Little) (air) is used over and over which is equivalent to (much) (air).   (Method of reconditioning) is used to make this happen.

This is an example of the useful TRIZ tool of REGENERATION.

Example—Moving Heavy Statues

184 Heavy StatueIn order to move a heavy statue, a LOT of logs are required in a line leading to the site.  Unfortunately, FEW logs are available.

(Few) (logs) are used over and over which is equivalent to (many) (logs).  (Replacing worn logs) is used to make this happen.

Example—Belt

185 BeltIn order to rotate a pulley a LOT of rope is required.  Unfortunately, only LITTLE rope is available.

(A short) (rope) is used over and over which is equivalent to (a long) (rope).  (Occasional maintenance) is used to make this happen.

This is an example of the TRIZ tool of SPHEROIDALITY[54].

Practice—Eternal Sand

Practice—Radiation Treatment

Practice—Special Delivery

Practice—Molecular Wind Pump

186 Maturing ProliferationMethod

The (element) is capable of self organization through (method).  During (condition A) the (element) starts as (setting A). Over time the (element) matures or proliferates to become (setting B) during (condition B).

Explanation

Some contradictions are resolved very slowly.  In this case, we must wait until something grows up.  This implies a self-organizing structure.  It may be possible to do this without living structures…

Example—Growing Plants

187 FlowerThe shade producer needs to be SMALL when the plant is small so that the plant gets sufficient light.  The shade producer needs to be LARGE when the plant is large to avoid sunburn during the heat of the summer.

The (shade producer) is capable of self organization through (biological growth).  During (the time that the plant is small) the (shade producer) starts as (small). Over time the (shade producer) matures or proliferates to become (large) during (the time that the plant needs a lot of shade).

A second shade plant is grown with the first plant.  Both grow together and the shade producer is always capable of allowing sufficient light through to the plant that requires shade.

Example—Caterpillar and Butterfly

188 ButterflyThe caterpillar must be SLOW AND METHODICAL when it is young in order to gather food.  It must be FAST during adulthood in order to find a suitable mate.

The (caterpillar) is capable of self organization through (biological growth).  During (youth) the (caterpillar) starts as (slow). Over time the (caterpillar) matures or proliferates to become (fast) during (search for mate).

Practice—Special Delivery

Method189 Separate Use

Individual (elements) which are (setting A) come into play gradually during (condition A).  In the end, the sum effect is (setting B).

Explanation

The elements, having one setting, come into use one-at-a-time.  Over the course of time the whole effect is opposite to the individual pieces.  This is very similar to Separation Between the Parts and the Whole.  The difference is that the parts build up over time.

Example—Paper Plates

190 Pie Plus PieThe plates need to be DURABLE in order to make it through many meals.  The plates need to be LOW LIFE in order to be inexpensive.

Individual (plates) which are (low life) come into play gradually during (many meals).  In the end, the sum effect is (durable) (plates). 

This is an example of CHEAP SHORT LIFE[55] one of the original principles of invention.

Example—Small Explosions

191 ExplosionsThe explosions need to SMALL during the demolition because that is all that is available.  They need to be LARGE in order to move a lot of earth.

Individual (explosions) which are (small) come into play gradually during (excavation).  In the end, the sum effect is a (large) (explosion).

Example—Big Impact Statements

 192 One Big StatementOnly SMALL impact statements are possible in the available time slots.  But the impact of the statement needs to be LARGE.

Individual (statements) which are (small impact) come into play gradually during (available time slots).  In the end, the sum effect is (a large impact statement).

194 Gradually MergedMethod

Multiple or segmented (elements) are available.  Gradually merging the (setting A) (elements) during (condition A) results in the equivalent of (setting B) (elements).

Explanation

193 Different Ways to MergeGradually merged elements slowly take on the opposite property of the individual elements.  Objects may be segmented[56] to allow for this method.  Arrange the individual parts so that the merged whole has the conflicting property of the individual parts.  Added parts can do more than touch.  They can nest[57], interweave or mix together.  They can also merge at the micro level.  Partial actions can also be merged to give a full action.

Example—Pile Driver

195 Pencile PileThe piles need to be THIN during driving and THICK to support the load.

Multiple or segmented (piles) are available.  Gradually merging the (thin) (piles) during (driving) results in the equivalent of (thick) (piles).

Example—Large Brick Structure

196 Merged BricksThe structure needs to be SMALL because the only structural elements to build it are small bricks.  It needs to be LARGE because the final structure needs to be large. 

Multiple or segmented (structures) are available.  Gradually merging the (small) (structures) during (building) results in the equivalent of (large) (structures).

Example—Reservoir

197 DamLARGE AMOUNTS of water are required for farms.  SMALL AMOUNTS of water are all that is available during the winter.

Multiple or segmented (water) is available.  Gradually merging the (small amounts of) (water) during (the winter) results in the equivalent of (large amounts of) (water).

Example—Storage of Solar Energy

198 Solar PanelsSMALL AMOUNTS of electricity are available during the day.  LARGE AMOUNTS of electricity are required during the evening.

STORAGE:  Multiple or segmented (amounts of electricity) are available.  Gradually merging the (small amounts of) (energy) during (the day) results in the equivalent of (large amounts of) (energy in a battery system).

Practice—Radiation Treatment

Practice—Special Delivery

Practice—Super Yacht

Practice—Molecular Wind Pump

Method199 Merged Interaction

Multiple or segmented (elements) are available.  Each (setting A) (element) that is merged during (condition A) with the already merged (elements) become (setting B) by (method).

Explanation

Parts are slowly merged with the system.  As they are added, they are transformed to the new property by what is already there.

Example—Pile Driving

200 Merged PilesThe pile needs to be SHARP while driving and BLUNT while supporting.

Multiple or segmented (piles) are available.  Each (sharp) (pile) that is merged during (driving) with the already merged (piles) become (blunt) by (pushing down on a ledge protruding with a lip).

Example—Square Bread Rolls

201 Square Bread RollsThe rolls need to be ROUND because they are easier to form this way.  They need to be SQUARE because that they store easier that way.

Multiple or segmented (rolls) are available.  Each (round) (roll) that is merged with the already merged (rolls) become (square) by (pushing them together).

Example—Training a Group

202 Gradually TrainingThe group needs to be UNTRAINED because the only available trainees are untrained.  The group needs to be TRAINED in order to be productive.

Multiple or segmented (group members) are available.  Each (untrained) (group member) that is merged with the already merged (group members) become (trained) by (training from those already there).

Example—Melting a Metal

203 Melting MetalThe metal needs to be SOLID since the only available metal is solid.  It needs to be LIQUID in order to facilitate production.

Multiple or segmented (metal elements) are available.  Each (solid) (metal element) that is merged with the already merged (metal elements) become (liquid) by (being melted by the previously melted elements).

Practice—Special Delivery

Method205 Gradually Hiding

The (element) already has both properties.  (Setting A) is desirable and (setting B) is undesirable.  The (elements) are gradually merged in a way that hides (setting B) until the whole is (setting A).

Explanation

204 Ways to Gradually HideThis method applies only to elements that already have both properties, but one of the properties is undesirable and we want it to go away.  In order to do this, we hide the property that we don’t want with parts of the other elements that have the property that we do want.  Notice in the figure at the right that all of the negative signs are hidden in the middle.  They are completely surrounded by the parts of the element that are positive.  Consequently, the whole element appears to have the positive property.  This usually applies to multiple elements (same, similar or dissimilar) which have an undesirable property.  Remember that elements can do more than simply touch.  They can also interweave or nest[58] within each other.  They can be mixed as well.  Consider different orientations.

Example—Square and Round Shapes

206 Round Made from SquaresThe element already has both properties.  (Round) is desirable and (square) is undesirable.  The (shapes) are gradually merged in a way that hides (square) until the whole is (round).

Example—Unprotected Tanks

207 Hiding TanksEach tank is PROTECTED from the front and VULNERABLE from the rear when no other forms of protection are available.

The (tank) already has both properties.  (protected) is desirable and (vulnerable) is undesirable.  The (tanks) are gradually merged in a way that hides (vulnerable) until the whole is (protected).

As tanks arrive and “circle up” newly arriving tanks back up to other tanks thus hiding the vulnerability that each tank has inherently.

208 Gradually TransformedMethod

The (element) (critical region) is made from (transformable material).  During (condition A) the (element) transforms from (setting A) to (setting B).  

Explanation

Separation in Time considers the bulk transformation of objects to change their properties.  Often, this transformation is gradual.  This gradual change can be useful under certain conditions.  As in all cases where we Separate Gradually, we begin with one property and end with the other.  Unfortunately, the knob setting must pass through the compromise state.   This may work in some instances, but makes this tool less powerful.

Example—Pile Driving

209 Abraided Tilel TipThe pile must be SHARP while driving and BLUNT while supporting.

The (pile) (tip) is made from (abraidable material).  During (driving) the (pile) transforms from (sharp) to (blunt).

Practice—Special Delivery

Method210 Gradually Adding Fields

The (element) (critical region) can be changed from (setting A) to (setting B) by gradually adding a (field type) field.  During (condition A) the (element) transforms from (setting A) to (setting B).

Explanation

Separation in Time considers the addition of fields to objects to change their properties.  Often, this transformation is gradual.  A more gradual change can be useful under certain conditions.  As in all cases where we Separate Gradually, we begin with one property and end with the other.  Unfortunately, the knob setting must pass through the compromise state.   This may work in some instances, but makes this tool less powerful.

Practice—Special Delivery

Separate in Space

Separation in Space[59] was one of the earliest discovered methods of resolving contradictions. At one critical moment in time BOTH properties are expressed.  For instance, when a book is being read, it is required that the pages be stiff in order to lay flat and for the ease in handling the book.  At the same moment in time, it is required that the pages be flexible in order to be easily turned.  This is effectively accomplished by making some pages stiff and the rest of the pages flexible.  Some of the most bedeviling problems are resolved by using separation in space.  The fact that some objects require two conflicting properties at the same critical instant makes a problem seem hard.  Notice that the methods progress from completely separate objects to identifying locations within an object or space with conflicting properties.

Test: During (critical time) (setting A) is essential (where condition A exists).  (Setting B) is essential (where condition B exists).  Must these conditions (and settings) overlap in space?  If yes then go to Separate between the Parts and the Whole.

Explanation

We have already demonstrated that we can have a test for Separation in Time.  This test can save a lot of time looking through the various methods.  We would like to do the same thing with Separation in Space.  This test will help us to determine whether Separation in space is feasible.  If both settings must occur in the same space then it is probably not possible to use this method.

If one of the conditions is never essential (useful and necessary) then the condition where this applies is any place that it is allowable.  Note that some of the methods will only weakly apply when one of the conditions is not essential.

Example—Controlled Explosions

211 Controlled ExplosionsDuring mining operations it is necessary to precisely time a series of explosions.  One way to do this is to drop a conductive plug down a tube with electrical contacts spaced at precise intervals.  As the conductive weight passes each set of contacts, continuity is established across the contacts and an explosive charge is detonated.  Unfortunately, in order to ensure continuity, the force of the contacts against the conductive weight needs to be high.  This causes the timing to be erratic. The plug must CONTACT the leads in order to complete the circuit and must NOT CONTACT the leads in order to keep the timing perfect.

212 Existant and Non Existant Contact

This is a great problem because it looks so impossible. Note that the problem is stated in a way that leads the problem solver to believe there is only one object.  “The plug” must intimately contact and not contact.  We never know how a problem will come to us and the assumptions that will be thrust upon us, either by ourselves or others. 

Test: During (the moment that the plug passes a critical point in space) (intimate contact) is essential (where the conductor must conduct across the contacts).  (No contact) is essential (at any location where there is no interaction with the part of the plug that interacts with the contacts).  Must these conditions (and settings) overlap in space?  If there is no interaction whatsoever then there is no need for overlap.  We conclude that there may be a possibility of separating in space.

Example—Pile Driving

213 Sharp and Blunt PileWe would like the pile to be SHARP in order to drive it more rapidly and we would like it to be BLUNT in order to support well.

Test: During (supporting) (bluntness) is essential (where a supporting structure exists to keep it from falling over).  (Sharpness) is essential where (nowhere) exists.  These conditions do not overlap in space.  However, since sharpness is essential nowhere we need to determine where it is allowable.  It is allowable anywhere the vertical support is sufficient to carry the vertical load that the sharp pile cannot carry.  The sharp pile is mostly carrying the lateral loads.

Practice—Radiation Treatment

Practice—I Just Can’t Stop

Practice—Traffic Light

Practice—Super Yacht

Practice—Blistering Coils

Practice—What’s Up Dock

Practice—Special Delivery

Practice—Log Jam

Practice—The Beat Goes On

Method214 Two Objects

If more than one type of (element) is allowed, one (element) is (setting A) and a nearby (element) is (setting B).

Explanation

TWO objects exist with conflicting properties.  This is a very powerful method of resolving contradictions, but it is often neglected because it seems too simple.  It is often described as what a small child might suggest to solve a conflict.  “If I need a doggie to be big and small, why not have TWO doggies?”  Certainly, in some settings, this would be too costly, but there are many situations where this makes perfect sense and should not be ignored.

Example—Pile Driving

215 Blunt and Sharp PilesThe pile must be SHARP in order to drive rapidly and BLUNT in order to support well.

If more than one type of (pile) is allowed, one (pile) is (sharp) and a nearby (pile) is (blunt).

Example—Needles

216 Small and Large NeedlesThe needle needs to be LARGE in order to sew thick and heavy pieces of cloth together.  They need to be SMALL in order to sew thin fine cloth together.

If more than one type of (needle) is allowed, one (needle) is (large) and a nearby (needle) is (small).

Example—Torches

The torch needs to have a HIGH FLAME in order to cut thick pieces of metal.  It needs to be a  LOW FLAME in order to do intricate cutting of thin pieces. 

If more than one type of (torch) is allowed, one (torch) is (high flame) and a nearby (torch) is (low flame).

Example—Sandpaper

218 Course and Fine Sand PaperSandpaper needs to be COARSE to form wood and FINE for finishing.

If more than one type of (piece of sandpaper) is allowed, one (piece of sandpaper) is (coarse) and a nearby (piece of sandpaper) is (fine).

Example—Construction Site Sprayer

219 Fine and Corse SprayThe spray nozzle needs to spray HEAVY DROPLETS in order to wet the ground but FINE MIST in order to settle flying dust.

If more than one type of (spray nozzle) is allowed, one (spray nozzle) is (heavy droplets) and a nearby (spray nozzle) is (fine mist).

Example—Military Division of Labor

220 Combat and Peace KeepersThe military group needs to have a PEACE KEEPING MISSION in order to keep factions from harming each other.  The military group needs to have a COMBAT MISSION in order to defeat the enemy.

If more than one type of (military group) is allowed, one (military group) has a (peace keeping mission) and a nearby (military group) has a (combat mission).

Example—Instructions for the Flu

221 Flue InstructionsThe message must INCITE TO ACTION in order that people will react and get flu shots.  The message must REQUEST CALMNESS in order to avoid mass hysteria.

If more than one type of (message) is allowed, one (message) is (inciting to action) and a nearby (message) is (requesting calmness).

Example—Woodworking Chemicals

222 Woodworking ChemicalsThe compound must STRIP epoxy in order to clean parts.  The compound must HARDEN epoxy in order to make the epoxy durable.

If more than one type of (compound) is allowed, one (compound) must (strip epoxy) and a nearby (compound) must (harden epoxy).

Practice—Take Smaller Bites

Practice—Traffic Light

Practice—Two Tining Rake

Practice—Blistering Coils

Practice—Fish to the Rescue

Practice—Log Jam

Method223 Extraction

If the (element) can be separated into functional parts: The separated (element part) is (setting A). The (rest of the element parts) are (setting B).  The separated parts interact through (means).

Explanation

Using the principal of Extraction[61], the element with conflicting properties is broken into different functional elements.  One part of the component must be separated out and given the conflicting property.  The separation is necessary to give the element the conflicting property.  In order to make this happen, a means must be envisioned which allows the extracted part to interact with the element parts that it has been separated from.  This interaction link is what makes Extraction different from the Two Objects method.

Example—Aircraft Refueling

224 RefuelingDuring the refueling of aircraft it is necessary for the tanker to CONTACT the aircraft that is being refueled.  The tanker must NOT CONTACT the refueled aircraft in order to avoid crashing.

If the (tanker) can be separated into functional parts: The separated (fueling nozzle) is (in contact with the refueled craft). The (rest of the aircraft) is (not in contact).  The separated parts interact through (a long refueling line).

Example—Oven Sensor

225 Oven SensorThe electronics of an oven sensor must be COLD in order to last a long time.  But, the electronics must get HOT in order to sense the temperature. 

If the (electronics) can be separated into functional parts: The separated (electronic sensor) is (hot). The (rest of the electronics) are (cold).  The separated parts interact through (wires).

Example—Dealing with Criminals

226 Dealing With CriminalsSociety is DANGEROUS because criminal acts occur on a daily basis.  Society must be BENIGN in order to have peaceful lives.

If the (society) can be separated into functional parts: The separated (criminal) is (dangerous). The (rest of society) is (benign).  The separated parts interact through (the legal system).

Example—Quotes

227 QuotesA statement needs to be BRIEF in order to be impactful and not bore the audience.  However, statements by many important people are LONG WINDED.

If the (statement) can be separated into functional parts: The separated (quote) is (brief). The (rest of the statement) is (long winded).  The separated parts interact through (footnotes).

Example—Stirring Acid

228 Stirring AcidIn order to stir acid, a stirring element must EXIST IN THE ACID.  In order to have a long life, the stirring element must NOT EXIST IN THE ACID.

If the (acid stirrer) can be separated into functional parts: The separated (stirring element) is (existing in the acid). The (rest of the stirrer) does (not exist in acid).  The separated parts interact through (a magnetic coupling).

Example—Extraction of Element

229 Extraction of ElementsA compound must have PROPERTY A in order to perform function A.  It must have PROPERTY B in order to perform function B.

If the (compound) can be separated into functional parts: The separated (compound part) is (setting A). The (rest of the compound) are (setting B).  The separated parts interact through (electrostatic fields).

Practice—Radiation Treatment

Practice—Construction Lights

Practice—Super Yacht

Practice—What’s Up Dock

Practice—Log Jam

Method232 Path

On a path (path location A) the (element knob) is (setting A). On a path (path location B) the (element knob) is (setting B).

Explanation

If motion or shape is involved in the conflicting properties, it is entirely possible that the property may have a value on one path and the conflicting value on another path. 

Example—Circuit Board

233 Circuit BoardIn general, it is desirable to have SHORT paths everywhere on a circuit board.  This helps greatly when it comes to high-speed circuits where timing is quite critical.  Sometimes, however, there is a need for a LONG path. 

On a path (through the board) the (wire length) is (short). On a path (around the board) the (wire length) is (long).

Example—Heat Sensor

234 Heat SensorThe temperature gradient needs to be HIGH in order to create a voltage potential with a thermopile.  The temperature differential needs to be LOW in order to not stress the attached electronic components.

On a path (along the axis) the (temperature gradient) is (high). On a path (across the end of the sensor) the (temperature gradient) is (low).

Example—Sidewalk Cracks

235 Sidewalk CracksSidewalk cracks must EXIST due to the high tension stresses caused during heat expansion and contraction. Sidewalk cracks must NOT EXIST because that would be aesthetically unacceptable.  (Notice that we are not changing any knobs that would remove the tendency to crack. Here is a good example of an “outcome” knob which must and must not be turned.)

On a path (along a notch) the (existence of crack) is (existing). On a path (in all other locations) the (existence of the crack) does (not exist).

Example—Pile Driving

236 Drill Pile DriverThe pile frontal area must be SMALL in order to drive rapidly.  The frontal area must be LARGE in order to support well.

On a path (rotating along the axis of the pile) the (frontal area) is (small). On a path (linearly along the axis) the (frontal area is) is (large).

This is somewhat of a whimsical means of making a pile blunt and not blunt.  If the pile is formed into a screw-like shape and the end is sharply formed, then it will twist as it goes in.  Along this path, the pile frontal area is SMALL.  However, when it is constrained and not allowed to turn then all of the material between the spirals makes the pile frontal area LARGE.  The pile would require a very coarse pitch to allow it to be pounded in.

Practice—Blistering Coils II

Practice—Radiation Treatment

Practice—I Just Can’t Stop

Method237 Guide Nestle Penetrate

The (element) is (setting A).  The interacting (object) is (setting B). The objects (interact / guide / nestle or go through each other).

Explanation

An extension of attaching conflicting objects to each other, we can find ways to make the objects interact by allowing them to interact from a distance, guide each other, nestle[64] within or go through each other.  This may be necessary when we want reduced physical contact with the conflicting objects.  Remember that these objects still have both properties expressed at the same time.

Example—Spring in Housing

238 Spring in HousingThe spring needs to be STIFF in order to not buckle when compressed long distances.  It needs to be FLEXIBLE in order to have a low spring rate for proper operation.

The (spring) is (flexible).  The interacting (spring housing) is (stiff). The objects (go through each other).

This idea was arrived at by considering a flexible spring inside of a stiff spring.  The stiff spring can be shaped in whatever shape is required to allow movement of the inner spring.  The outer spring mentally morphs into a housing which is the ultimate stiff outer spring.

Example—Electric Motor

239 Electric MotorThe electric motor circuit needs to be CONDUCTIVE in order to supply electricity to the electro-magnets on the armature.  The circuit needs to be INSULATING in order to turn off current to some electro-magnets on the armature.  At the same moment in time, the motor circuit should be both insulating and conductive.

The (circuit) is (conductive).  The interacting (surrounding air) is (insulating). The objects (nestle) each other.

The only electrically conductive path is through the brushes.  Since the air is insulating.  This allows the electro-magnets on the armature to be selectively activated as the armature turns.

Example—Co-located Security Group

240 Co Located SecurityThe research center must be DEDICATED TO RESEARCH in order to perform the research properly.  It needs to be DEDICATED TO SECURITY in order to avoid security breaches.  Being both is too time consuming on the part of the researchers.

The (research center) is (dedicated to research).  The interacting (security group) is (dedicated to security). The objects (nestle).

Practice—Controlled Explosions

Method243 Attached Objects

The (element or element part) is (setting A).  The attached (object) is (setting B).

Explanation

241 Attached Object PictureOne element has the desired property.  It is attached to another element having the conflicting property.  This is different from a carrier.  With a carrier, all parts take on the property of the carrier. 242 Attached Object Options In this case, both conflicting properties are necessary and expressed at the same time.  Another object can be attached or the element can be separated into functional parts.

Example—Reflector

244 square and Round ReflectorThe reflector needs to be FLAT in order to reflect a strong signal back.  It needs to be SPHERICAL in order to reflect a weak signal.

The (reflector) is (square).  The attached (reflector) is (spherical).

Example—Apron

T245 Apronhe apron needs to be FLUID REPULSING in order to not absorb spray paint.  It needs to be FLUID ABSORBING in order to wipe off paint that gets onto the hands or arms of the sprayer.

The (apron) is (fluid repulsing).  The attached (towel) is (fluid absorbing).

Example—Pencil

245 PencilThe pencil must be CAPABLE OF WRITING in order to place marks on paper.  It must be CAPABLE OF ERASING in order to take marks from a paper.

The (pencil) is (capable of writing).  The attached (eraser) is (capable of erasing).

Example—Police Interrogation Teams

246 Interrogation TeamThe interrogation team needs to be SYMPATHETIC to the individual being interviewed in order to have a trusting relationship with someone when the person wants to talk.  The team needs to be UNSYMPATHETIC because police are generally unsympathetic by nature and also in order to reinforce the idea that the person being interrogated is in trouble.

The (team) is (unsympathetic).  The attached (interrogator) is (sympathetic).

Example—Diapers

247 diaporsThe diaper must be ABSORBENT in order to draw moisture away from the body.  It must be WATERPROOF in order to not allow fluid leakage.

The (diaper) is (absorbent).  The attached (exterior waterproof lining) is (waterproof).

Example—Instructions for the Flu

248 Flue InstructionsThe message must INCITE TO ACTION in order that people will react and get flu shots.  The message must REQUEST CALMNESS in order to avoid mass hysteria.

The (message) is (intended to incite to action).  The attached (message) is (requesting calmness).

Example—Organization

249 Autonomous MilitaryThe military needs to be ORGANIZED in order to coordinate activities.  It needs to be AUTONOMOUS in order to conduct specialized missions.

The (military organization) is (centrally organized).  The attached (special forces) is (autonomous).

Example—Roof Tiles

250 Roof TilesThe roof needs to be WOOD in order to construct with hand tools.  It needs to be CERAMIC in order to repel water.

The (roof) is (wood).  The attached (tiles) are (ceramic).

Example—Toothbrush

251 ToothbrushThe bristles must be FLEXIBLE to conform to the teeth and disturb the plaque on the teeth.  They must be RIGID in order to be guided by a hand.

The (handle) is (rigid).  The attached (bristles) are (flexible).

Practice—I Just Can’t Stop

Method252 Partly Carried

Several (elements) can be used.  Some of the (elements) which are (setting A) are attached to a (carrier) which is (setting B).  The (carrier) and attached (elements) are collectively (setting B).  The (elements or element parts) which are not carried are still (setting A).

Explanation

Here again is a combination of Separation Principles.  A carrier [65]is attached to only part of the elements to give them the opposing property. The part to which the carrier is not attached retains the opposing property.

Example—Pages in a Book

253 BookThe pages need to be STIFF in order for the reader to control the pages while turning each page.  The pages need to be FLEXIBLE in order to easily turn them.

Several (pages) can be used.  Some of the (pages) which are (flexible) are attached to a (binding) which is (stiff).  The (binding) and attached (pages) are collectively (stiff).  The (parts of the pages) which are not carried are still (flexible).

Example—Carpet Fibers

254 Carpet FibresThe carpet fibers need to be STIFF in order to stay together and look new all of the time.  They need to be FLEXIBLE in order to feel soft to the touch.

Several (fibers) can be used.  Some of the (fibers) which are (flexible) are attached to a (sheath) which is (stiff).  The (sheath) and attached (fibers) are collectively (stiff).  The (part of the fibers) which are not carried are still (flexible).

Example—Combat vs. Peace Keeping

261 Group EducationThe military peace keepers need to be COMBAT READY in case of rapid enemy deployments.  It needs to be SECURITY READY in order to keep the peace.

Several (military personnel) can be used.  Some of the (military personnel) which are (peace keepers) are attached to a (combat organization) which is (combat ready).  The (combat organization) and attached (peace keepers) are collectively (combat ready).  The (peace keepers) which are not carried are still (security ready).

Practice—Too Flexible

Practice—Super Yacht

Method258 Partly Merged

Several (elements) can be used.  They partially merge or interact by (method of merging or interaction). 256 Partly Merged The partly merged (elements or part of the elements) are (setting A).  All that are unmerged are (setting B).257 Merge Nestle Interlink

Example—Killing Tumors

259 TumorThe beam intensity must by HIGH INTENSITY in order to kill the tumor.  It must be LOW INTENSITY in order to not kill the surrounding tissue.

Several (beams) can be used.  They partially merge or interact with each other by (crossing the beams).  The partly merged (section of the beams) is (high intensity).  All that are unmerged are (low intensity).

Example—Carpet Fibers

260 Carpet FibersThe carpet fibers need to be STIFF in order to stay together and look new all of the time.  They need to be FLEXIBLE in order to feel soft to the touch.

Several (fibers) can be used.  They partially merge or interact by (tying one fiber around the others).  The partly merged (fiber strands) are (stiff).  All that are unmerged are (flexible).

Example—Group Education

261 Group EducationThe group of doctors should be TRAINED in a certain medical procedure in order to more effectively treat patients.  The group of doctors should remain UNTRAINED in order to reduce the costs of training.

Several (doctors) can be used.  They partially merge or interact by (teaching each other the medical procedure).  The partly merged (doctors) are (trained).  All that are unmerged are (UNTRAINED).

263 Non UniformMethod

Only one (element) is allowed. One part of the (element) is (setting A). Another part of the same (element) is (setting B).

Explanation

262 Non Uniform ExamplesA SINGLE ELEMENT has both conflicting properties.  (It is not uniform).  The brown box at the right gives a number of possible ways to create non-uniform conditions.  Note that transformation devices have one property at the input and the conflicting property at the output.  Finding a way to make an object non-uniform allows for fewer objects to be used.  This can decrease the cost of the objects.  In mainstream TRIZ, this method is often referred to as Local Quality.

Example—Fence

264 Non Uniform FenceThe fence needs to be TALL in order to keep large animals from escaping.  It needs to be SHORT in order to stop small animals from escaping and to be less expensive.

Only one (fence) is allowed. One part of the (fence) is (tall). Another part of the same (fence) is (short).

Clearly, the large animals must not be allowed to move to the short end of the fence.

Example—Space Object Size Detector

265 Non Uniform Wave FormA signal burst is sent into space at a target to determine its size.  If the object is much smaller than the wavelength, there is little reflection.  The signal wavelength must be SHORT in order to detect small objects.  The signal wavelength must be LARGE in order to detect large objects.

Only one (signal burst) is allowed. One part of the (signal burst) is (short wavelength). Another part of the same (signal burst) is (long wavelength).

In this case, the wavelength can be varied throughout the burst.  At any given moment in time, the burst has different wavelengths at different locations as it travels through space.  The size of an object can be approximated by looking at the wavelength of the signal that is reflected back. 

Example—Lever

266 LeverAn actuator is powered by magneto-strictive materials which have high force outputs but low displacements.  The actuator needs to have HIGH movement in order move long displacements.  It needs to have LOW movement because the actuator is only capable of small movement.

Only one (beam) is allowed. One part of the (beam) is (slow). Another part of the same (beam) is (fast).

Instruments that transform energy are often good examples of Non-Uniform Separation in Space.  A lever is LOW FORCE and FAST at the input and HIGH FORCE and SLOW at the output.

Example—Non-Uniform Group

I267 Non Uniform Groupn order to be comfortable liberals must be surrounded by other LIBERALS.  However in certain areas of the country the majority of people are CONSERVATIVES.  Therefore liberals are surrounded by them.

Only one (group) is allowed. One part of the (group) is (liberals). Another part of the same (group is (conservatives).

When given the opportunity, individuals in a group of people will tend to locate themselves where they feel most comfortable within the group.  This makes the group non-uniform.

Example—Non-Uniform Story

268 Non Uniform StoryThe story must be a LOVE STORY to attract women.  It must be and ACTION STORY in order to attract men. 

Only one (story) is allowed. One part of the (story) is (a love story). Another part of the same (story) is (an action story).

Often a story or a message will begin very differently than it ends.  For instance, a murder mystery may start with a very pleasant description of a community and end with the disclosure that a murderer has always lived with them.

Example—Bacteria Stain

F269 Bacterial Stainor a study on pool bacteria, a dye must be introduced which stains the bacteria.  The dye must be CONCENTRATED in order to stain the bacteria that exist on one small wall of the pool.  It must be DILUTE in order to not stain the other walls.

Only one (stain) is allowed. One part of the (stain) is (concentrated). Another part of the same (stain) is (dilute).

Practice—Radiation Treatment

Practice—Blistering Coils

Practice—Too Flexible

Practice—Soft Water

Practice—Super Yacht

Practice—The Beat Goes On

Method271 Facsimile

The (element) is unfortunately (setting A).  But we can change its (appearance, sound, feel, smell or effect) to seem like it is (setting B) when using (a type of facsimile that represents the important attributes).

Explanation

270 Different FacsimilesA facsimile[66] or representation of the object has the opposing properties of the actual object.  To the right are a number of possible facsimiles.   These various methods represent only the important feature of the object that we are interested in. 

Note that this is actually a method for Separating in Space but it is grouped here for convenience and because the test works well to support this method.

Example—Movie

272 Bullet MovieThe bullet in flight is FAST because that is how they come.  The bullet must be SLOW in order to see how it enters the target.

The (bullet) is unfortunately (fast).  But we can change its (appearance) to seem like it is (slow) when using (a movie of the bullet).

Example—Modeling of Explosion

273 Explosion ModelThe explosion is very FAST which makes it difficult to measure many characteristics throughout the explosion area.  It needs to be very SLOW in order to go around to the different regions and measure the important attributes.

The (explosion) is unfortunately (fast).  But we can change its (appearance) to seem like it is (slow) when using (a model of the explosion).

Example—Organization Model

274 Organization ModelAn actual organization must be ALTERED SLOWLY in order to not make mistakes and cause resentment.   It is necessary to ALTER RAPIDLY in order to consider the different possibilities.

The (organization) is unfortunately (altered slowly).  But we can change its (appearance) to seem like it is (rapidly altered) when using (an organizational chart).

Example—Meeting Notes

275 Meeting NotesThe actual meeting may be very LONG and drawn out.  It needs to be SHORT in order to not take a lot of management time.

The (meeting duration) is unfortunately (long).  But we can change its (appearance) to seem like it is (short) when using (a meeting summary).

Example—Vaccine

276 VaccineIn order to obtain immunity, a VIRUS gives that the correct bodily response.  Unfortunately, a virus can be deadly so NO VIRUS must be used to keep people safe.

The (virus) is unfortunately (a virus).  But we can change its (effect) to seem like it is (not a virus) when using (a vaccine).

Practice—Log Jam

Practice—Fish to the Rescue

Method

For actions, forces or extrinsic attributes that depend upon interactions such as beauty. Part of the (element) has (countering forces, fields or actions) in one location.  In another location of the (element) the counter (counter forces, fields or actions) do not exist.

Explanation

Blocking actions, forces or fields can exist in one location.  In another location these actions, forces or fields do not exist.  The counteraction[67] nullifies the action in that region so the conflicting attributes have a setting in one region and the null setting in another.277 Football Play

Example—Football Play

The line needs to HOLD FAST in order that quarterback is not overwhelmed.  The line needs to GIVE WAY in order to create an opening for the ball carrier.

For actions, forces or extrinsic attributes that depend upon interactions such as beauty. Part of the (offensive line) has (blocking) in one location.  In another location of the (offensive line) the (blocking actions) do not exist.

Practice—I Just Can’t Stop

Method

One (element) is (location creating condition A) rendering it (setting A).  Another (element) is (location creating condition B) rendering it (setting B)

Explanation

Opposing conditions separated in space create situations where an element automatically has conflicting properties by being located in the opposing locations.

Example—Boat Mooring

278 On condition BoatThe boat must be MOBILE in order to fish or enjoy other recreation.  The boat must be IMMOBILE in order to not drift off when unoccupied.

One (boat) is (in the water) rendering it (mobile).  Another (boat) is (on the land) rendering it (immobile).

Example—Foams, Liquids, Floating Solids, Fluids in Motion

279 Machining through FoamThese selectively pass large objects.  They may stop gases, other liquids and very small objects.  Consider using inert materials to perform this.  In this example, evolving gases from a machining process are stopped by a foam barrier.  The foam is TRANSPARENT to large objects and OPAQUE to small objects.

One (high inertia body) is (through the foam) rendering it (transparent).  Another (small inertia body) is (anywhere the large inertia body is not located) rendering it (opaque).

Note that wherever there is a large inertia force, there is a small resistance to the large inertia body. Everywhere else, there is a high resistance to small inertia bodies.  This can also be a separation in time.  Whenever small inertial forces occur, there is a large resistance to transmit the small inertia body.  Whenever large inertial forces occur there is a small resistance to transmit the large inertia body.

Exercise--I Just Cant Stop

Separate Between the Parts and the Whole

280 Separation Between Parts and WholeSeparation between the Parts and the Whole[68] is uniquely different from Separation in Time and space.  At the same critical moment in time and in the same space, a grouping of objects can have a collective property and its parts can have the opposing property.[69]  

Using the principle, we may either hide one of the properties or express both.  Whether we express both properties or hide one of them depends upon how we arrange the parts.  If we arrange them so that the parts cannot interact with other elements or in a way that minimizes the interactions, then one of the properties may be hidden or disposed of.  If we arrange them so that the parts can interact at their respective scales then both properties can be expressed.

This separation principle is particularly useful when one desires to hide or dispose of one of the properties. In this case, we arrange the elements so that we minimize critical interactions.  We may do this by actually hiding the elements.  Some may ask “When does it occur that only one of the conflicting properties is useful?”  There are two common conditions.  The first condition is when an “outcome” must and must not occur.  For example, something is broken but it must not be broken. Another condition is when an element only comes in “one flavor”.  For instance, something must be large, but it only comes as small entities.  In each of these cases, it may be possible to hide the undesirable “flavor” or outcome.

On the other hand it may be desirable to express both properties, one is expressed at a larger scale, where it is needed, and the other is expressed at a smaller scale where it is needed.  We will refer to the larger scale as the “macro” scale and the smaller scale as the “micro” scale for brevity, though the two scales may be quite similar and the “micro” scale may be quite large. A piece of sandpaper is flexible at the macro scale in order to conform to large objects.  The small abrasive particles are stiff at the smaller scale in order to gouge into the surface of the wood. Note that the parts are arranged in such a way that they can interact and thus the micro properties can be expressed.

Test

Step 1:  At a critical moment in time, should either (setting A) or (setting B) be hidden or minimized to solve the problem?

Step 2:  At a critical moment in time, do I want (setting A) and (setting B) to be expressed at different scales?

Step 3:  If the answer to 1 and 2 is “no”, go to separation by direction.  Otherwise, separate between the parts and the whole.

Explanation

This is one of the simplest tests for separation principles.  The purpose of separating between the parts and the whole is to only end up with one important property.  In the end, only one of the settings will be expressed, the macro property. 

Example—Pile Driving

281 Square and Blunt PilesWe would like the pile to be SHARP in order to drive it more rapidly and we would like it to be BLUNT in order to support well.

Step 1:  At a critical moment in time, should either (blunt) or (sharp) be hidden or minimized to solve the problem?  No, there is no critical time in which both settings should be hidden or minimized.

Step 2:  At a critical moment in time, do I want (sharp) and (blunt) to be expressed at different scales?  No, there is no time in which we would desire both bluntness and sharpness.

Step 3:  If the answer to 1 and 2 is “no”, go to separation by direction.  Otherwise, separate between the parts and the whole.  Since the answer to both is “no” we would go to separation by direction.

Example—Traffic Light

282 Traffic LightThe lights in a traffic light must eventually FAIL due to the action of the current on the filament and to vibration.  The traffic light must NOT FAIL in order to not cause traffic delays or make the intersection more dangerous.

This is an example of an output contradiction.  Most people would think of this as the Y in the function Y=f(X1, X2, X3…).  They show up as implicit contradictions on the causal analysis diagrams.  Something must be undesirable and desirable, without reference to what is causing the undesirable behavior.

Step 1:  At a critical moment in time, should either (failed) or (not failed) be hidden or minimized to solve the problem?  Yes, if bulb failure was minimized during any time after failure of a light bulb that would solve the problem and it would be sufficient.

Step 2:  At a critical moment in time, do I want (sharp) and (blunt) to be expressed at different scales? No, there is no critical time that both properties are essential

Step 3:  If the answer to 1 and 2 is “no”, go to separation by direction.  Otherwise, separate between the parts and the whole.  The answer to 1 is “yes” so we will try to separate between the parts and the whole.

Example—Sand Paper

283 SandpaperWe require a RIGID structure in order to cut the surface of the wood, but we require a FLEXIBLE material in order to conform to the rounded contours of the wood project that we are making. 

Step 1:  At a critical moment in time, should either (rigid) or (flexible) be hidden or minimized to solve the problem?  No, we want the sanding system to be both flexible and stiff.

Step 2:  At a critical moment in time, do I want (flexible) and (rigid) to be expressed at different scales?  Yes, I want flexibility to be expressed at the macro scale and rigidity be expressed at the micro scale.

Step 3:  If the answer to 1 and 2 is “no”, go to separation by direction.  Otherwise, separate between the parts and the whole.  The answer to 2 is yes so we will try to separate between the parts and the whole.

Practice—The Lesser Weevil

Practice—Vibrating Water Wheel

Practice—Blistering Coils

Practice—What’s Up Dock

Practice—The Beat Goes On

Method284 Formation

(Segmented or individual) (elements) are (setting A).  The (elements) are arranged into a formation which (describe working formation).  This formation has the macro effect of being (setting B).  (Setting A) is (expressed or hidden).

Explanation

Multiplied or segmented[72] elements have one desirable property.  These elements are separate and placed into a formation that gives the whole system of elements the opposing property.  If both properties are expressed then the individual parts should be arranged to allow interaction.  The individual parts do not interact with each other (that would be merging).  The macro property occurs because of the formation. Scale down multiplied versions if necessary.

Example—Square and Round

285 Square from CirclesThe individual shapes are unfortunately ROUND.  We would like them to be SQUARE.

(Individual) (shapes) are (round).  The (shapes) are arranged into a formation which (approximate the shape of a square).  This formation has the macro effect of being (square).  (Roundness) is (hidden).

Example—Large Impact Posters

286 Large Impact PostersThe individual posters need to be LOW IMPACT so as to not arouse suspicions that they were created by activists.  They need to be HIGH IMPACT in order to have the desired effect on the visitors that attend the poster session.

(Individual) (posters) are (low impact).  The (posters) are arranged into a formation which (takes the viewer from one poster to the next).  This formation has the macro effect of being (high impact).  (Low impact) is (expressed).

Example—Small Explosions

287 Big from Small ExplosionsA LARGE explosion is necessary to move a lot of earth.  Unfortunately, only SMALL explosive charges are available.

(Individual) (explosions) are (small).  The (explosions) are arranged into a formation which (is sufficiently close to have the required effect).  This formation has the macro effect of being (large).  (Smallness) is (hidden).

Example—Small Advertisements

288 One Big StatementOnly SMALL impact statements are possible in the available advertising spaces on the page.  But the impact of the statement needs to be LARGE.

(Individual) (statements) are (small impact).  The (statements) are arranged into a formation which (strategically placed on the page to give maximum visual impact).  This formation has the macro effect of being (large impact).  (Small impact) is (hidden).

Example—Exchanging Hydrogen

289 Exchanging HydrogenThe individual sulfuric acid molecules need to be SMALL in order to attach to the hydrogen ions.  They need to be LARGE in order to move large quantities of hydrogen.

(Individual) (sulfuric acid molecules) are (small).  The (sulfuric acid molecules) are arranged into a formation which (has random but uniform dispersion in an aqueous solution).  This formation has the macro effect of being (large).  (Smallness) is (expressed).

Example—Big Person

290 Big PersonThe person needs to be LARGE to lift the log.  Unfortunately, all we have is AVERAGE size people.

(Individual) (people) are (average sized).  The (people) are arranged into a formation which (line up along the log).  This formation has the macro effect of being (large).  (Average sized) is (hidden).

Example—Square and Round

285 Square from CirclesThe individual shapes need to be ROUND in order to perform their proper function.  They need to be SQUARE in order to fit nicely into an inexpensive box.

(Individual) (shapes) are (round).  The (shapes) are arranged into a formation which (is the approximate shape of a square).  This formation has the macro effect of being (square).  (Roundness) is (expressed).

Practice—Molecular Wind Pump

Practice—Traffic Light

Method292 Merging

(Segmented or individual) (elements) have the property of being (setting A).  When made to interact with each other by (field, mediator, method or arrangement), the overall effect is (setting B).  (Setting A) is (expressed or hidden).

291 Different Ways to Merge

Explanation

The term “merging[73]” will be used more broadly to indicate “interacting” with individual or segmented[74] objects.  The individual objects or segments have one desired property and the interacting objects have the opposing property.  Such interactions can be achieved with the fields shown in the Table of Fields.

 A mediating substance or “mediator” can also allow the individual elements to interact with each other.  The mediating substance or field typically operates at the macro scale while the individual elements operate at the micro scale.  Merging allows for action at a distance as well as the potential of touching, nesting[75], interweaving, attaching and mixing.  We also allow for fields which repulse rather than attract.

In order to drive to ideality, we would like to use existing fields if possible.  An example of this would be to make the elements interlink.  Mechanical fields already exist; why not allow them to perform the act of merging?

49 Table of Fields

As in all of the merging methods, it may be necessary to break the element down into multiple pieces that can then interact.  When an element is segmented into multiple elements, this creates new resources and properties such as adjustability[76].

Example—Car Chain

293 ChainThe anti-slip device must be STIFF in order to dig into the ice on the road.  It must be FLEXIBLE in order to wrap around the tire.

(Segmented) (anti-slip devices) have the property of being (stiff).  When made to interact with each other by (interlocking), the overall system is (flexible).  (Stiffness) is (expressed).

Example—Pinned Truss System of Support

294 TrussThe structure must BE UNABLE TO TRANSFER A MOMENT in order to more easily calculate the loads throughout the structure.  The structure must CAPABLE OF CARRYING MOMENTS in order to transfer the load correctly.

(Segmented) (structural elements) have the property of being (unable to transfer a moment).  When made to interact with each other through (pins), the overall effect is (capable of carrying a moment).  (Unable to transfer a moment) is (expressed).

Example—Bicycle Chain

T295 Bicycle Chainhe transmission must be RIGID in order to not yield on the sprockets and it must be FLEXIBLE to wrap around the sprockets.

(Segmented) (transmission elements) have the property of being (rigid).  When made to interact with each other by (hinging pins), the overall effect is (flexible).  (rigid) is (expressed).

Example—Square and Round Shapes

296 Square from RoundThe individual shapes need to be ROUND in order to perform their proper function.  They need to be SQUARE in order to fit nicely into an inexpensive box.

(Individual) (shapes) have the property of being (round).  When made to interact with each other by (being merged in a square shape), the overall effect is (square).  (Round) is (expressed).

Example—Shell Structure

297 Shell StructuresThe structure needs to be THIN in order to be light.  It needs to be THICK in order to be structurally sound.

(Segmented) (structural areas) have the property of being (thin).  When made to interact with each other by (merging into a shell structure), the overall effect is (thick).  (Thinness) is (expressed).

Example—Covalently Bonded Compounds

298 Covalently BondingThe molecules need to be CHARGED and NEUTRAL.

(Individual) (ions) have the property of being (charged).  When made to interact with each other by (ionic bonding), the overall effect is (neutrally charged).  (Being charged) is (hidden).

Example—Puzzle

299 Banana PuzzleEach piece of the puzzle displays A PARTIAL PICTURE.  What is required for viewing is AWHOLE PICTURE.

(Segmented) (picture pieces) have the property of being (a partial picture).  When made to interact with each other by (interlocking), the overall effect is (a whole picture).  (Being a partial picture) is (hidden).

Example—Interacting Documents

300 DocThe individual specifications are INCOMPLETE making them difficult to understand.  What is needed is a COMPLETE specification.

(Individual) (specifications) have the property of being (incomplete).  When made to interact with each other by (a connecting database), the overall effect is (complete).  (Incomplete) is (hidden).

Example—Interacting Sales People Spread Information

301 Sales PeopleSales people in the group are UNKNOWLEDGEABLE.  This is a disadvantage while working with customers.  They must be KNOWLEDGABLE.

(Individual) (sales people) have the property of being (unknowledgeable).  When made to interact with each other by (merging), the overall effect is (knowledgeable).  (unknowledgeable) is (hidden).

Example—Gas Velocity

302 Gas VelocityThe beaker of liquid needs to be VERY STILL during an experiment. However, it is made of individual molecules which each have HIGH VELOCITIES.

(Individual) (molecules) have the property of being (high velocity).  When made to interact with each other by (colliding), the overall effect is (collectively still at the macro level).  (High velocity) is (hidden).

Example—Large Impact Affidavit

303 AffidavitThe affidavits have LITTLE IMPACT since they are only from average people describing small incidents of problems.  This is the only way that they come.  The affidavit needs to have MAJOR IMPACT in order to sway the judges.

(Individual) (affidavits) have the property of being (small impact).  When made to interact with each other by (merging into a book), the overall effect is (major impact).  (Small impact) is (hidden).

Example—Thin and Thick Plates

304 Thin and Thick PlatesAt the critical moment of drilling, the plates need to be THICK.  They need to be THIN because that is how they are supplied to the machining center.

(Individual) (plates) have the property of being (thin).  When made to interact with each other by (merging into a clamped stack), the overall effect is (thick).  (Thin) is (hidden).

Note that we use merging in Separation in Time.  This might as well have been a case where there was a necessary reason for the plates to be thin in order to provide a useful function.  We note, however, that at the critical time of drilling, the thinness is no longer useful and we need to discard this setting.  We get to the same solution as in Separation in Time.

Example—Stiff Spring

305 Stiff SpringWe need the spring to be STIFF but, unfortunately, we only have FLEXIBLE SPRINGS.

(Individual) (springs) have the property of being (flexible).  When made to interact with each other by (several rows of springs where the springs share the load in parallel), the overall effect is (stiff).  (Flexible) is (hidden).

Example—Colored Printing

306 Colored PrintingThe stamp needs to be MANY COLORS but there are only FEW COLORS.

(Individual) (colors) have the property of being (few colors).  When made to interact with each other by (groupings of areas where the fraction of each color is different), the overall effect is (many colors).  (\Few colors) is (hidden).

Example Toothbrush

307 conical ToothbrushThe bristles must be BLUNT because of the cutoff machine.  But they must be SHARP in order to move the plaque.

(Individual) (levels of bristles) have the property of being (blunt).  When made to interact with each other by (merging into a cone shape), the overall effect is (sharp).  (Blunt) is (hidden).

Example—Superbolt

308 SuperboltThe tensioning bolt must have SMALL TENSION in order to have low installation torques.  The tension bolt must have LARGE TENSION in order to tension large loads.

(Individual) (small bolts) have the property of being (small tension).  When made to interact with each other by (merging into a circle), the overall effect is (large tension).  (small tension) is (hidden).

This device is made by Superbolt company.

Practice—The Lesser Weevil

Practice—Fish to the Rescue

Practice—A Slight Polishing

Practice—Special Delivery

Practice—Traffic Light

Practice—Metallic Film

Practice—Molecular Wind Pump

Practice—Log Jam

Method310 Carriers

(An inexpensive carrier object or substance) which is (setting A) is (attached to, surrounding or mixed with) (segmented or individual) (elements) which are (setting B) thus loaning its property and making the combination (setting A) at the macro scale.  (Setting B) is (hidden or expressed at the micro scale).309 Attaching Nesting Mixing

Explanation

One or more objects with one property are closely associated with a “carrier[77]” substance having the conflicting desirable property.  The whole takes on the desired property of the carrier. Using carriers is one of the most powerful methods of changing the properties of objects.

If the property of the element is desirable, then they are arranged in the carrier in such a way that they are expressed at the smaller “micro” scale.  Thus, both properties may be expressed or an undesirable property of the element may be hidden.

Using a carrier requires the addition of new substances which is not desirable, so try to find the least expensive carrier possible.

Simply attaching a carrier to the object may be sufficient to allow the carrier to “loan” its properties.  This can be done in a variety of ways shown in the orange box, such as simply touching, being clamped together, adhering together, etc.

Objects with one property can be nested[78] inside another object having the conflicting desirable property.  The whole takes on the desired property of the carrier. The carrier can be solid, liquid or gas.  Consider some of the more unusual carriers in the orange box.

A segmented[79] carrier having a desirable property may be mixed with segmented or multiplied elements having the opposing undesirable property.  The whole takes on the properties of the carrier.  The orange box shows some of the more unusual carrier mixtures possible. Refer to these as you consider resolving your contradiction.  The term “segmented carrier” has reference to liquid molecules, fibers and even larger elements such as laminate sheets. Consider finer and finer scales down to sub-atomic particles.

Example—Separating Rocks from Mulch

311 Rocks from MulchRocks do not readily separate themselves from mulch.  It would be much better if the mulch were LIQUID rather than SOLID.

(Water) which is (liquid) is (mixed with) (individual) (mulch elements) which are (solid) thus loaning its property and making the combination (liquid) at the macro scale.  (Solidness) is (hidden)

The rocks fall through easily.

Example—Paint Roller

312 Paint RollerIn order to paint ceilings, it is desirable that the paint rollers are LONG.  Unfortunately, they come with SHORT handles.

(A pole) which is (long) is (attached to) (individual) (rollers) which are (short) thus loaning its property and making the combination (long) at the macro scale.  (Shortness) is (hidden).

Example—Soluble Molecule

313 Soluable MoleculeAn herbicide which is INSOLUBLE IN WATER has to dissolve in water in order to be sprayed, but in order to dissolve in water it must be SOLUBLE IN WATER. 

(A molecule) which is (soluble in water) is (attached to) (individual) (herbicide molecules) which are (insoluble in water) thus loaning its property and making the combination (soluble in water) at the macro scale.  (Insolubility in water) is (hidden).

Example—Beads on a String

314 Beads on a StringPearls are beautiful but they are STIFF and do not conform to the person that they are adorning.  They must be FLEXIBLE.

(A string) which is (flexible) is (attached to) (individual) (pearls) which are (stiff) thus loaning its property and making the combination (flexible) at the macro scale.  (Stiffness) is (hidden).

Example—Backup Bearing

315 Backup BearingAll bearings must eventually be FAILED but since it has a critical function it must NOT BE FAILED.

(A backup bushing) which is (not failed) is (attached to) (individual) (ball bearings) which are (failed) thus loaning its property and making the combination (not failed) at the macro scale.  (Failed) is (hidden).

A bushing and a ball bearing are combined.  The ball bearing performs the function with low friction until it fails and then the bushing takes over.  The bearing has failed but the whole assembly has not failed.  This is an example of a PREVIOUSLY PLACED CUSHION[80].

Example—Sand Paper

316 SandpaperWe require a RIGID structure in order to cut the surface of the wood, but we require a FLEXIBLE material in order to conform to the rounded contours of the wood project that we are making. 

(Paper) which is (flexible) is (attached to) (segmented) (abrasive particles) which are (rigid) thus loaning its property and making the combination (flexible) at the macro scale.  (Rigidness) is (expressed at the micro scale).

Example—Carrier Signals

317 Carrier SignalsA carrier wave can have HIGH FREQUENCY signals riding on LOW FREQUENCY signals.  The property of low frequency is expressed at a large scale while the high frequency signal is expressed at a smaller scale.

(A signal) which is (low frequency) is (attached to) (individual) (signals) which are (high frequency) thus loaning its property and making the combination (low frequency) at the macro scale.  (High frequency) is (expressed at the micro scale).

Example—Medicine Capsule

318 Medicine CapsuleThe small pellets of medicine are HARD TO SWALLOW due to their taste, but they need to be EASILY SWALLOWED in order to be an effective medicine.

(A gel capsule) which is (easily swallowed) is (surrounding) (segmented) (medicine) which are (hard to swallow) thus loaning its property and making the combination (easy to swallow) at the macro scale.  (Hard to swallow) is (hidden).

Example—Fossil Preservation

319 Fossil PreservationThe fossil must be DURABLE in order to be transported long distances.  However, the fossil as it comes out of the ground is FRAGILE.

(A plaster and gauze coating) which is (durable) is (surrounding) (individual) (fossils) which are (fragile) thus loaning its property and making the combination (durable) at the macro scale.  (Fragility) is (hidden).

Example—Highlighting Instructions

320 Highlighting InstructionsThe instructions need to be BRIEF in order to have quick action.  The instructions need to be LENGTHY in order to get an accurate response. 

(Short instructions) which are (brief) are (surrounded by) (individual) (instructions) which are (lengthy) thus loaning its property and making the combination (brief) at the macro scale.  (Lengthy) is (expressed at the micro scale).

Note that in this example, the carrier is surrounded by the non-carrier item.  When people look at the instructions, the first thing that they see are the brief instructions which get them going.

Example—the Car Makes You Look Good

 321 Car Makes look goodAn UNATTRACTIVE person wants to be ATTRACTIVE.

(A car) which is (attractive) is (surrounding) (individual) (people) which are (unattractive) thus loaning its property and making the combination (attractive) at the macro scale.  (Unattractiveness) is (hidden).

Example—Hiding Parts of a Sandwich

322 SandwichThe condiments of a sandwich are MESSY.  However, they must NOT BE MESSY in order to feed a large group of people in a nice setting.

(Bread) which is (not messy) is (surrounding) (individual) (condiments) which are (messy) thus loaning its property and making the combination (not messy) at the macro scale.  (Messiness) is (hidden).

Example—Citrus Fruit

323 Citrus FruitCitrus fruit needs to be NUTRITIOUS in order to feed large animals.  In order that insects do not eat it must be POISONOUS TO INSECTS.

(A peel) which is (poisonous to insects) is (surrounding) (individual) (fruits) which are (nutritious) thus loaning its property and making the combination (poisonous) at the macro scale.  (Nutritious) is (expressed at the micro scale).

Example—Nested Molecule

324 Nested MoleculeAn herbicide which is INSOLUBLE IN WATER has to dissolve in water in order to be sprayed, but in order to dissolve in water it must be SOLUBLE IN WATER.

(A molecule) which is (soluble in water) is (surrounding) (individual) (herbicide molecules) which are (insoluble in water) thus loaning its property and making the combination (soluble in water) at the macro scale.  (Insolubility in water) is (hidden).

Example—Atom—Fast Electrons Over a Slow and Massive Nucleus

325 Slow NucleusThe atomic structure needs to be ACTIVE in order to interact with other atomic structures.   It needs to be INERT in order to stay in one location.

(Electrons) which are (active) are (surrounding) (individual) (nuclei) which are (inert) thus loaning its property and making the combination (active) at the macro scale.  (Inertness) is (expressed at the micro scale).

Example—Hair Gel

326 GelA hair setting liquid (adhesive) must be an easily FORMABLE SOLID in order to be spread by the hands in the hair.  Unfortunately, it is a NON-FORMABLE LIQUID. 

(Colloidal silicon dioxide—nano glass) which is (a formable solid) is (mixed with) (segmented) (hair-setting liquid) which is (a non-formable liquid) thus loaning its property and making the combination (a formable solid) at the macro scale.  (Non-formable liquid) is (hidden).

Example—Unbiased Truth?

327 Unbiased TruthWhile purporting to be completely unbiased and a model for telling both sides of the story, a newspaper can easily become an advocate for some editorial point that the editors or journalists would like to make. 

Editors at a nationally syndicated paper would like to report on a story but also make an editorial point.  They want to give MESSAGE A.  Unfortunately, the events surrounding the article do not directly support message A.  If the simple facts were reported, the article would give MESSAGE B.  How can the newspaper make its editorial point and still just report “the news”? (It is recognized that this is a somewhat subversive example meant to sensitize reasonable people to what may be happening around them.)

(A number of small editorial articles or advertisements) which are (message A) are (mixed with) (segmented) (news articles) which are (message B) thus loaning its property and making the combination (message A) at the macro scale.  (Message B) is (expressed at the micro scale).

Example—Conductive Plastic

328 Conductive PlasticAn article must be made from plastic which is an ELECTRICAL INSULATOR in order to make it less expensively with injection molding.  The article must be made from metal or graphite which is an ELECTRICAL CONDUCTOR in order to electrically plate it.  The property of insulator is not required at all.

(Particles of graphite) which are (electrically conductive) are (mixed with) (segmented) (plastic matrix) which is (an insulator) thus loaning its property and making the combination (electrically conducting) at the macro scale.  (Electrically insulating) is (hidden).

Example—High Strength Concrete

329 High Strength ConcreteConcrete has high compressive strength but LOW TENSILE STRENGTH.  This is almost always an undesirable property for a building material.  The concrete needs to have HIGH TENSILE STRENGH for a variety of structures including stucco.

(Glass fibers) which are (high tensile strength) are (mixed with) (segmented) (cement) which is (low tensile strength) thus loaning its property and making the combination (high tensile strength) at the macro scale.  (Low tensile strength) is (hidden).

Example—Composite fabric

330 Composite FabricA medical material is sought which has many of the properties of nylon but is also THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE.  Unfortunately, nylon fabrics are THERMAL INSULATORS.

(An aluminum fiber) which is (thermally conductive) is (mixed with) (segmented) (nylon fibers) which are (thermally insulating) thus loaning its property and making the combination (thermally conductive) at the macro scale.  (Thermally insulating) is (hidden).

Example—Collectively Informed

331 Collectively InformedEach person is individually UNINFORMED which is undesirable.  But they need to be INFORMED in order to carry out the necessary tasks.

(Individuals) which are (informed) are (mixed with) (individual) (people) which are (uninformed) thus loaning their property and making the combination (informed) at the macro scale.  (Uninformed) is (hidden).

Practice—A Slight Polishing

Practice—Blood Brain Barrier

Practice—A Limit to Cell Phones

Practice—Ugly Cookies

Practice—Vibrating Water Wheel

Practice—Too Flexible

Practice—Metallic Film

Practice—Fish to the Rescue

Practice—The Beat Goes On

Practice—Traffic Light

Method231 Mixture

(Inexpensive particles or segmented elements) which are (setting A) are (mixed with) (particles or segmented elements) which are (setting B).

230 Different Mixtures

Explanation

Particles or segmented[62] elements having both properties are mixed together.  Both properties are existent and expressed at the same time at a smaller scale.  Both properties are ready to act at any moment.  Composites[63] are a good example of mixtures.

The orange box shows some of the more unusual mixtures possible. Refer to these as you consider resolving your contradiction.  Consider finer and finer scales down to sub-atomic particles.

Method332 Hiding Part

Each individual (elements) already has the undesirable property of (setting A) and the desirable property of (setting B), even in the slightest degree. The (elements) are merged (into a configuration that hides setting A—try different orientations) thus giving the general property of (setting B).

Explanation

Multiple elements are involved.  Each element already has both conflicting properties separated in space. One of the conflicting properties is undesirable.  The elements are merged in such a fashion that the undesirable feature of each element is hidden and only the desirable property is expressed.  This may be possible when the element has the desired property in the slightest degree.  Remember that this method should not be considered unless the existing elements already have both the desirable and undesirable properties.

Example—Hiding Roughness

333 Hiding RoughnessA sheet of granite has one side which is SMOOTH and the other side is ROUGH. We want a table that is entirely smooth.

Each individual (sheet) already has the undesirable property of (rough) and the desirable property of (smooth), even in the slightest degree. The (sheets) are merged (back to back with the rough sides inward) thus giving the general property of (smooth).

Example—Hiding Sharp Edges of a Can

334 Hiding Can EdgesA can has the non-uniform condition of being partly SHARP (enough to cut skin) and mostly NOT SHARP.  

Each individual (can part) already has the undesirable property of (being sharp) and the desirable property of (not being sharp), even in the slightest degree. The (can parts) are merged (by rolling the edges up in a seam) thus giving the general property of (being not sharp).

Example—Hiding Frayed Edges of Cloth

335 Hemmed ClothMost cloth has the undesirable property of being FRAYED at the edges.  The rest is NOT FRAYED.  The edges are rolled up and sewed into seams.

Each individual (piece of cloth) already has the undesirable property of (being frayed) and the desirable property of (not frayed), even in the slightest degree. The (pieces of cloth) are merged (by rolling the edges together and sewing them into seams) thus giving the general property of (not frayed).

Example—Hidden Molecular Poles

336 Hide Negative PolesA molecule must be POSITIVELY CHARGED in order to have strong intermolecular effects.  The molecules must be both NEGATIVELY AND POSITIVELY CHARGED in order to maintain a neutral polarity.

Each individual (molecule) already has the undesirable property of (negatively charged) and the desirable property of (positively charged), even in the slightest degree. The (molecules) are merged (around a strong positive charge so that only the negative charges are exposed) thus giving the general property of (positively charged to molecules close by).

Example—Tape

337 two sided tapeThe tape needs to be STICKY in order to stick objects to the wall for decoration.  Unfortunately, the tape is NON-STICKY on one side.

Each individual (piece of tape) already has the undesirable property of (non sticky) and the desirable property of (sticky), even in the slightest degree. The (tape) is merged (into a rolled surface) thus giving the general property of (sticky).  Note that this is done with one object.

Practice—Ugly Cookies

Method:338 New Dimension

The (element) has the property of being (setting A).  Going (up or down) in dimension gives the (element) the property of being (setting B) since (explanation).

Explanation

The properties of a section of an object can have very different properties from the whole object. This is important because our thinking may be trapped in one dimension and the answer lies in another.  The property in one dimension is undesirable.  The property in the other dimension is desirable[81].

Example—Curved surface

339 Curved SurfaceThe panel needs to be STRAIGHT in order to have low aerodynamic drag.  It needs to be CURVED in order to conform to the frame of the aircraft.

The (panel) has the property of being (curved).  Going (down) in dimension gives the (panel) the property of being (straight) since (a section through the panel is a straight line which is sufficient in the direction of air flow).

Example—Cylinder Section

340 Cylindar SectionsA cylindrical section of a capacitor has SMALL ELECTRICAL STORAGE AREA, but the capacitor must have a LARGE ELECTRICAL STORAGE AREA.

The (capacitor) has the property of being (small electrical storage area).  Going (up) in dimension gives the (capacitor) the property of being (large electrical storage area) since (a lot of area can be packed into a very small volume, depending on the dielectric strength of the dielectric material that is used)

Practice—What’s Up Dock

Method342 Countering

The (element) (force, field, field gradient or action) has a direction with the undesirable property of (setting A).  Countering the (force, field, field gradient or action) with (a counter measure) gives the desirable (setting B--Low or Null).

Explanation

341 Different Kinds of CounteringTwo strong actions are capable of yielding a null action if they are oriented to cancel each other[82].  This principle is typically used with actions, fields or forces that have direction.  If more than one element can be used, then two of these elements can be oriented so as to counter each other.  Alternately, another opposite action can be introduced which counters the action.  Consider the possible countering methods shown in the tan box.

Example—Counter Weight

343 Counter WeightA HEAVY automobile transmission is difficult to move about.  It must have NULL weight.

The (transmission) (weight) has a direction with the undesirable property of (heavy).  Countering the (weight) with (a counter weight with transmission cable) gives the desirable (null weight).

Example—Counter Force

344 Counter ForceA spring has a very HIGH preload due to its high spring rate and working conditions.  However, it must have a very LOW preload in the application.

The (spring) (preload force) has a direction with the undesirable property of (high force).  Countering the (preload force) with (another high rate spring preload) gives the desirable (low force). 

Example—Counter Signal

345 Counter SignalA HIGH AMPLITUDE signal must be rapidly turned off to become a NULL signal.  Unfortunately, the signal can turn on rapidly but decays slowly when turned off.

The (signal) (amplitude) has a direction with the undesirable property of (high amplitude).  Countering the (amplitude) with (a counter signal 180 degrees out of phase) gives the desirable (null signal).

Example—Counter Gradient

346 Counter GradientDue to temperature stratification in a heat exchanger, the exiting air has a HIGH THERMAL GRADIENT.  In order for temperature sensors to give accurate readings of the bulk temperature of the air, there should be NO THERMAL GRADIENT.

The (air) (temperature gradient) has a direction with the undesirable property of (high thermal gradient).  Countering the (temperature gradient) with (a counter thermal gradient) gives the desirable (low thermal gradient).

Example—Counter Momentum

347 Counter MomentumHigh velocity movements of large objects within a camera can cause the camera to move.  A HIGH VELOCITY Motion is required but undesirable.  There must be NULL VELOCITY movement.

The (camera element) (motion) has a direction with the undesirable property of (high velocity).  Countering the (motion) with (a high velocity motion of a counter weight in the opposite direction) gives the desirable (null velocity of the system).

Example—Flywheel Reaction Forces

348 Flywheel Reaction ForcesA flywheel is used to store energy in a vehicle.  The flywheel rotates at very high speed.  When the vehicle turns a corner or changes incline, the gyroscopic action of the flywheel generates large forces which act on the vehicle.  These large forces are undesirable.  The flywheel generates HIGH REACTION FORCES but in order to not stress the structure, we need LOW REACTION FORCES.

The (flywheel) (gyroscopic force) has a direction with the undesirable property of (high reaction force).  Countering the (gyroscopic force) with (a high reaction force) gives the desirable (low reaction force).

Two gyroscopes cancel each other’s reaction forces.

Example—Non Buckling Column

349 Non Buckling ColumnDuring the axial loading of long thin structures, the phenomenon of buckling can occur.  It occurs catastrophically because as the column buckles, the effective axial spring rate drops.  In other words, the further you push it, the less it pushes back.  This is referred to as a negative spring rate.  The column has a HIGH NEGATIVE RATE.  In order to safely support high forces, the column should have a LOW OR POSITIVE RATE.

The (column) (spring rate) has a direction with the undesirable property of (high negative rate).  Countering the (spring rate) with (a high positive rate spring) gives the desirable (low or positive rate).

Example—Organization Strengths

A350 Org Strengths HIGH implementation speed can become a weakness in certain conditions, especially when trying to sync up with other organizations that are not as fast.  The organization needs to be operating a LOW implementation speed.

The (organization) (implementation speed) has a direction with the undesirable property of (high).  Countering the (speed) with (another part of the organization trying to implement in a different direction) gives the desirable (low organizational speed).

Example—Nullifying an Argument

351 Null ArgumentsA STRONG statement has been made by someone high up in an organization.  The statement came across too strongly and only represented his point of view.  The statement should be WEAK.

The (statement) (effect) has a direction with the undesirable property of (strong).  Countering the (effect) with (a strong counter statement from another high official in the organization) gives the desirable (weak effect).

Practice—Storing Almost Protons

352 Complimentary DirectionsMethod

Each (element) is (setting A) which is desirable in one direction and (setting B) which is undesirable in another direction.  Combining two or more (elements) and orienting them in a complementary fashion makes the combination (setting A) in both directions.

Explanation

When objects have the required property in only one direction, they can be combined with another element that has the same property in only one direction.  These become complimentary and allow the required property in both directions.

Example—Pile Driving

352 cross pilesOnce in the ground, the pile must be blunt, but it is sharp.

Each (pile) is (blunt) which is desirable in one direction and (sharp) which is undesirable in another direction.  Combining two or more (piles) and orienting them in a complementary fashion makes the combination (blunt) in both directions.

Example—Car Airbags

353 Car Air BagsA car airbag CONSTRAINS in one direction only.  In the other direction there is NO CONSTRAINT.  It is desirable that the airbags can constrain in both directions. 

Each (airbag) is (constraining) which is desirable in one direction and (not constraining) which is undesirable in another direction.  Combining two or more (airbags) and orienting them in a complementary fashion makes the combination (constraining) in both directions.

Practice—Log Jam

Method354 Coordinated Parts

Adjustable[83] (elements) have the property of being (setting A).  When coordinated with each other by (method), the overall effect is (setting B).  (Setting A) is (expressed or hidden).

Explanation

A functional part with one property coordinates or cooperates with another part having a complimentary function and the same property.  The whole has the conflicting property.  In this case, we want both properties expressed.

Example—Water Faucet

355 Faucet Hot ColdMany water faucets have separate hot and cold water knobs.  If one CHANGES the flow of the hot water, in order to adjust the temperature, the total flow must NOT CHANGE.

Adjustable (flow areas) have the property of being (changing).  When coordinated with each other by (a coordinated partition), the overall effect is (NOT CHANGE).  (CHANGES) is (expressed).

Imagine that the water is flowing out of the page through each respective flow area.  As the partition moves, the percent of cold and hot changes, but the combined flow area remains constant.

Practice—Special Delivery

Separate By Direction

An object can have conflicting properties in different directions in the same space and at the same time.  This is one of the most powerful separation principles.  A simple example of this is a rope.  When pulled in the direction of tension, the rope is stiff.  However, if you try to push a rope, it is flexible.  Many objects already have a separation of the opposing properties by direction but we have not exploited this separation.

Test:

Does one of the conflicting properties already exist in a different direction or can it be modified to be so?  If “no” then continue to separate by perspective.  Otherwise try to separate by direction.

Example—Pile Driving

356 Sharp and Blunt PileThe pile should be SHARP for driving and BLUNT for supporting.

Test: Does one of the conflicting properties already exist in a different direction or can it be modified to be so?

The pile is already blunt in its sides.  We conclude to try to separate by direction.

Practice—A Post and an Outpost

Practice—Two Tining Rake

Practice—Too Flexible

Practice—Blistering Coils

Practice—A Slight Polishing

Practice—Log Jam

357 Separate By DirectionMethod

The (element) is (setting A) (in direction A).  The (element) (is already or can become) (setting B) (in the opposite direction or at right angles or in the rotary direction) if (new conditions—give explanation if required).

Explanation

Separation by direction allows one property to exist in one direction and the opposing property to exist in other directions.  If one mentally goes through the rough directions of opposing, right angle and rotary directions, something will often come to mind.  It is easy to forget some of the directions in the heat of problem solving.

Example—Pile Driving

358 Pile DirectionsThe pile needs to be SHARP in order to drive rapidly and BLUNT in order to support well.

The (pile) is (sharp) (in the direction of driving).  The (pile) (is already) (blunt) (at right angles) if (the supporting force is directed in the sideward direction).

A pile is naturally blunt in all directions but the driving direction which is SHARP.  If the pile is driven at an angle, it immediately creates a dull surface for vertical support.  If several are joined crosswise, the net effect is a very BLUNT support after driving.

Example—Square and Round Shapes

359 Square and Round ShapeA cylinder needs to be ROUND for function A and SQUARE for function B. 

The (cylinder) is (round) (when viewed from the end).  The (cylinder) (is already) (square) (at right angles).

Example—Food Grater

360 Food GraterIn order to grate the food, the blades must be SHARP.  In order to reposition the food for grating it should be SMOOTH.

The (grater) is (sharp) (in the direction of grating).  The (grater) (can become) (smooth) (in the opposite direction ) if (the cutting blades allow the food to slide over without cutting when the food is being moved in the opposite direction of grating).

Example—Board

361 Thick Thin BoardThe board needs to be THICK in order to span a wall.  It needs to be THIN in order to conserve wood and cost less.

The (board) is (thin) (in the vertical direction).  The (board) (can become) (thick) (at right angles).

Example—Package Binding

362 Package BindingThe binding needs to be STIFF in order to constrain the package tightly.  It needs to be STIFF for easy positioning and to wrap around any shape.

The (binding) is (stiff) (in the direction of winding the package).  The (binding) (can become) (flexible) (at right angles  if (it is made thin enough).

Example—Structural Member

363 Structural MemberThe structural member needs to have HIGH MOVEMENT in order to be easily assembled and join other structural members.  It should have LOW MOVEMENT in order to not move under high loads.

The (structural element) is (low movement) (in all directions but rotary).  The (structural element) (can become) (high movement) (in the rotary direction) if (supported by a pin).

Example—Organizational Size

364 Organization SizeThe organizational structure needs to be very SMALL in order to communicate rapidly.  It needs to be LARGE in order to get a lot of work done.

The (organizational structure) is (small) (from the top to the bottom of the organization). The (organizational structure) (can become) (large) (at right angles) if (the span of control is greatly increased).

Example—Pond

365 PondA pond at a housing development needs to be LARGE so that a lot of houses can enjoy a waterfront.  It needs to be SMALL in order to conserve water.

The (pond) is (large) (in all horizontal directions).  The (pond) (can become) (small) (in the vertical direction) if (the pond is made to be somewhat shallow).

Practice—A Post and an Outpost

Practice—Two Tining Rake

Practice—Too Flexible

Practice—Blistering Coils

Practice—A Slight Polishing

Practice—Log Jam

Separate By Perspective

In general, Separation by Perspective means that an object’s properties are dependent on perception.  This means that the element under consideration does not have to change its property.  It is good enough to simply look like it has the opposite property. 

We use many different senses to perceive, the most common being sight. However, we are not limited to this sense.  It may be good enough to sound like, smell like or feel like it has the opposite property.

Test

Is it sufficient to only appear to have one of the knob settings? If “no” then continue on to Separate by Frame of Reference.  Otherwise try to separate by perspective.

Example—Pile Driving

The pile should be SHARP for driving and BLUNT for supporting.

Test:  Is it sufficient too only appear to have one of the knob settings? No, it is not good enough.  We need both properties to actually exist in the piles.  We will go on to Separation by Perspective

Example—Microscope

Bacterium comes SMALL, but in order for proper inspection, it needs to be LARGE.

Test:  Is it sufficient too only appear to have one of the knob settings? Yes, the object only needs to appear to be large in order to be inspected.  We will try to separate by perspective.

Example—Fake Marble

We need a column to be MARBLE in order to appear ornate.  We need it to be WOOD because that is all that we have.

Test:  Is it sufficient too only appear to have one of the knob settings? Yes, in this case, if it only appears to be marble, that is sufficient.  We will try to separate by perspective.

Practice—A Post and an Outpost

Practice—Special Delivery

Practice—Fish to the Rescue

Practice—Ugly Cookies

Practice—Log Jam

Method366 How You Look or Perceive

The (element) is naturally and unfortunately (setting A).  It (looks like, sounds like, feels like or smells like) it is (setting B) when (a method of measurement or detection is used).

Explanation

Find physical phenomena that allow you to look at the Element in a different way.  Remember that perception is not based on sight alone, but every sense.

Example—Strobe Light

367 Strobe LightA vibrating object is RAPIDLY MOVING all of the time.  In order to observe its shape, it needs to be STATIONARY.

The (vibrating object) is naturally and unfortunately (moving).  It (looks like) it is (stationary) when (a strobe scope is used to illuminate it when it is at any given position of its normal cycle).

Example—Microscope

368 MicroscopeBacterium comes SMALL, but in order for proper inspection, it needs to be LARGE.

The (bacterium) is naturally and unfortunately (small).  It (looks like) it is (large) when (viewed under a microscope).

Example—Telescope

369 TelescopeA ship needs to be CLOSE in order to see the flags that it is displaying.  Unfortunately, it is very DISTANT.

The (ship) is naturally and unfortunately (distant).  It (looks like) it is (close) when (viewed through a telescope).

Practice—Traffic Light

Practice—Log Jam

Method370 Looks Feels Like

The (element) is unfortunately (setting A).  But we can change its (appearance, sound, feel or smell) to seem like (setting B) when using (paint[84], a substitute or covering fake object, camouflage, substitute smells, substitute taste, substitute sound).

Explanation

With this separation tool, it is good enough to look like the object has the conflicting property as opposed to actually having it. 

Example—Fake Marble

371 MarbleThe panel must be MARBLE in order to be decorative.  Unfortunately, all that we have is WOOD. 

The (panel) is unfortunately (wood).  But we can change its (appearance) to seem like (marble) when using (paint).

This is an example of the mainstream TRIZ principle of USING PAINT.

Example—Camouflage

372 CamouflageThe duck blind needs to be NATURAL AUTUMN LEAVES in order to not alert the ducks.  It needs to be FABRIC AND METAL in order to set up and take down easily.

The (blind) is unfortunately (fabric and metal).  But we can change its (appearance) to seem like (natural autumn leaves) when using (camouflage).

This is an example of the inventive TRIZ principle of USING PAINT[85].

Example—Hair Wig

373 WigThe hair is unfortunately BLACK.  In order to perform the part in a play, the hair must be BLOND.

The (hair) is unfortunately (black).  But we can change its (appearance) to seem like (blond) when using (a covering fake object).

Example—TV “Repair”

The television is unfortunately NOT APPEARING TO BE WORKING.  In order for the owner to be content with the television, the television must APPEAR TO BE WORKING.

The (Television) is unfortunately (not appearing to be working).  But we can change its (appearance) to seem like (working) when using (an action that appears to be maintenance).

“Sometimes there may be no problem in a device but the owner of the device can just refuse to get convinced … so, the technician coming to repair the device could simply turn a few knobs and set them back where they were and claim that the problem has been fixed… or for that matter, if it were a TV with a perceived low volume, the technician could just marginally increase the internal volume setting to give the owner a perception that the problem has been fixed[86]”.

Example—Placebo Medicine

The patient is unfortunately NOT FEELING WELL.  In order for the patient to have a good life the patient must FEEL WELL.

The (patient) is unfortunately (not feeling well).  But we can change its (perception) to seem like (feeling well) when using (a placebo medicine)

“A patient who refuses to believe that everything is fine with him and that his feeling of sickness may just be a psychological imagination….. the Doctor can prescribe him a ‘Placebo’ and the patient would consume the medicine (which actually has no medicinal value) and then start feeling fine!![87]

Practice—Special Delivery

Practice—Fish to the Rescue

Practice—Ugly Cookies

Method374 Inference

The (element) is unfortunately (setting A).  But we can change its (appearance, sound, feel or smell or effect) to seem like it is (setting B) by (a method to infer that it is setting B).

Explanation

The property state of an object is strictly implied by the property of another object.  Logic tells us that only one state can be implied, even though the original has a very different state.

Example—Double Deception

375 Pebbles in BagAn agreement is made that one person will place a black and a white pebble into a bag.  If the second person draws a white pebble, then an unsavory event will occur.  The first person, with evil intent, puts two black pebbles into the bag.  The second person sees this, unknown to the first.  Exposing the fraud of the first person is not an option.  The best that can happen is if the second person draws a WHITE pebble from the bag, but this is not possible.  It must be BLACK because that is all that can occur. 

The (pebble) is unfortunately (black).  But we can change its (appearance) to seem like it is (white) by (drawing a black pebble from the bag and not showing it, but dropping it on the ground among white and black pebbles.  By inference, they can see which one was picked by looking into the bag and finding the second black pebble.  Everyone infers that a white pebble was withdrawn.).

Practice—Traffic Light

Practice—Special Delivery

Separate By Frame of Reference

Separation by Frame of Reference means that an object’s properties are dependent on the frame of reference from which they are considered.  For instance, I am sitting at my desk.  None of my bodily movements are rapid.  However, the earth is rotating very rapidly and my speed compared to the frame of reference of the sun is quite rapid.  More rapid yet would be my speed compared to objects that are rotating counter to the earth’s rotation on its axis or about the sun.  At the same moment in time and in the same space, my speed is very rapid or very slow, depending upon the frame of reference.

No test is given for Separating by Frame of Reference because properties are always subject to the frame of reference that is assumed.  If we cannot find an inertial frame of reference, we can almost always identify what the property is being compared to.  Let’s take some random examples.  An object must not be “stinky” but it comes that way.  We can always ask, stinky compared to what?  What is your frame of reference?  An onion is stinky compared to grape jelly, but is not nearly as stinky as a skunk.  An onion is no longer stinky in a room filled with the odor of skunk.  If I say that the oven is hot, what is this in reference to?  A cooking oven may be hot compared to the temperatures required to bake a soufflé; but it is not hot compared to the baking temperature of bread.  If we switch and bake bread in the oven, it is no longer considered hot.  In each of these cases, we allow ourselves to change the frame of reference so that the conditions may be satisfied.  Note that it is not the element that we are considering that is going to be changed, but rather the frame of reference that it is being compared to.

Unlike Separation by Perspective, there may be more than just appearing to satisfy the conflicting requirements.  One or both of the properties may be required.  A property can actually be changed by changing the frame of reference.

Test

The test for Separation by Frame of Reference is not well developed.  All that is known is that, unlike Separation by Perspective, either one or both of the properties may be required.  It also may not be sufficient to have the appearance of one of the properties.

Method377 By Comparison

The (element) is already (setting A) when compared to (property of element 2).  Changing (element 2) by (method of changing the property of element 2) makes the (element) (setting B).

Explanation

376 Strong AcidifiersAll knob settings are relative to something.  Rather than change the element which cannot or should not be changed, the relative object is changed instead.  In this case, if you change the actual element under consideration, that is definitely the wrong answer.  The attribute of the second element that you must change is the frame of reference that is unconsciously used to tell us what an object’s properties are.    Most people would say that a needle is small without thinking about what it is compared to.  Usually it is considered small because a human has to make use of it and it is small compared to human fingers, often making it difficult to manipulate. It is uncommon to consider what we compare things to.  It would drive us insane if we always had to always consider that.

Example—Production Sets

378 Tall Man Short ManThe actor is SHORT because that is the way that he comes.  But he needs to be TALL in order to play the part.

The (actor) is already (short) when compared to (the size of surroundings and other actors).  Changing (the surroundings and other actors) by (miniaturizing the set props and putting the actor on a raised platform) makes the (actor) (tall).

Example—Buoyancy of an Object

379 BouyancyA measurement float needs to be BUOYANT in order to be more visible above the surface of the liquid.  Unfortunately, the float is quite heavy because it is made from a dense plastic and is therefore NOT BUOYANT.

The (measurement float) is already (not buoyant) when compared to (the density of the liquid it is floating in).  Changing (the liquid it is floating in) by (changing to a much more dense liquid) makes the (measurement float) (buoyant).

Example—Cheap and Expensive

380 Double Dollar SignsA product is very EXPENSIVE in the market that it is in, but it needs to be INEXPENSIVE in order to sell. 

The (product) is already (expensive) when compared to (the desires of the given market).  Changing (the market) by (moving to a different market) makes the (product) (inexpensive).

Practice—Blistering Coils

Practice—Blistering Coils III

Practice—Molecular Wind Pump

Practice—A Slight Polishing

Practice—Ugly Cookies

Practice—What’s Up Dock

Practice—Log Jam

381 Inertial Frame of ReferenceMethod

The (element) is already (setting A) when compared to (inertial, rotational, spatial or coordinate system frame of reference).  Changing the frame of reference by (method) makes the (element) (setting B).

Explanation

The properties can be very different depending on your inertial or spatial frame of reference or the coordinate system being used.  Physicists often have to consider the inertial frame of reference when calculating an object’s properties.  In particular, things can be very different depending upon your linear or rotational velocity. Likewise a problem can look very different when considering your spatial frame of reference.  What is your position relative to the object?  Are you near or far away?  Less common would be applications where we would consider the type of coordinate system. Are we using Cartesian coordinates or Polar coordinates? 

Example—Rotating Platform

382 Rotating PlatformA ball rolls in a track on a rotating platform.  The movement of the object is unfortunately CURVED. It needs to be LINEAR in order to be useful.

The (ball) is already (curved motion) when compared to (a stationary, non-rotating frame of reference).  Changing frame of reference by (observing the motion of the ball while rotating with the platform) makes the (ball) (linear motion).

Example—Moving Train

383 Moving TrainIn order to accurately determine which component on the vehicle is failing, the frequency needs to correlate to the NATURAL FREQUENCY of the failed component.  The frequency if NOT THE NATURAL FREQUENCY of the failed component when heard by an observer as the vehicle approaches.

The (vehicle sound) is already (not the natural frequency) when compared to (the velocity of the approaching vehicle).  Changing the frame of reference by (getting on the vehicle) makes the (vehicle sound) (the natural frequency).

Practice—The Beat Goes On

Practice—Molecular Wind Pump

Practice—Log Jam

384 Looks LikeMethod

The (element) must actually be (setting A) in order to (Requirement).  However, it must act like (setting b) in order to (2nd Requirement).  This will be accomplished by using the principle of (Physical Effect or Phenomenon).

Explanation

With this separation it may be necessary to have BOTH of the properties, however one of the properties is not usually associated with the other property.  For instance, solids and liquids are usually not grouped with each other, however, there are solids that act like liquids and liquids that act like solids.

Example—Deep Space Damper

385 Deep Space DamperThe damper fluid needs to be SOLID in order to exist in deep space.  It needs to act like a FLUID in order to provide proper damping action.

The (damping fluid) must actually be (Solid) in order to (survive in deep space at low temperatures).  However, it must act like (fluid) in order to (provide correct damping in the damping piston).  This will be accomplished by using the principle of (very small round solid particles that act like a fluid).

Separate by Response of Fields

In the same space and at the same time, two different fields or field regimes can respond differently to the shape or bulk properties of an object.  One field or field region may be changed whereas the other is left relatively unchanged.  This method of resolving contradictions is primarily for contradictions dealing with how different field regions or fields respond to substances and their bulk, surface or construction properties. The field may respond differently at the substance which generates, transmits or accepts the field.

It is important to realize that this method or resolving contradictions is used only with the response of fields to substances that inhabit the space where the field exists.  Consequently, the primary test for Separation by Response of Fields is to ask whether the contradiction is directly related to the response of fields. 

What this means is that you have already done a good job of identifying a field response property that must have two settings.  This should have occurred in causal analysis.  This emphasizes the importance of performing your causal analysis in such a way that you examine field properties and the response of fields to various substances very carefully.  You would have already asked “What is the field response properties related to the improvement that you are looking for?” The field response properties could be associated with gradient, intensity, conductance, etc.  Once you know the field response properties that help the improvement, you ask “What happens if I adjust the field response properties to resolve the problem? What gets worse?”  If something gets worse, then you identify what the field properties need to be in order to make sure that the thing which gets worse does not happen.  Now you have the required contradiction and you are ready to consider separating by field response.  If you have already gone to this much work, potential solutions should be right at hand.  You know that the field response should be A and it should be B.  Then it is a matter of finding a substance or construction that can achieve both settings A and B.

Test

Are both properties (knob settings) directly related to a substance and the way that fields (particularly super-imposed fields) respond to that substance? If “yes” then continue to the next part of the test.  If “no” then continue on to Separation between Substance and Field.  Complete the following, while identifying separate fields or field regions which make these statements true:

It is essential that:

The field response to the (substance in the operating region) must be (setting A) for (field region A or field A)

The field response to the (substance in the operating region) must be (setting B) for (field region B or field B)

Is it essential that field region or field A and B overlap? If they must overlap, then jump to Separation between Substance and Field.

Example—Light Bulb

The light must CONDUCT through the pressure barrier in order to be visible.  The light must NOT CONDUCT through the pressure barrier in order to not give off ultraviolet radiation.

Test:  Are both properties (knob settings) directly related to a substance and the way that fields (particularly super-imposed fields) respond to that substance? Yes, both conducting and not conducting are related to a substance and the way that light fields respond to that substance.  Complete the following, while identifying separate fields or field regions which make these statements true:

It is essential that:

The field response to the (pressure barrier) must be (conducting) for (visible light)

The field response to the (pressure barrier) must be (not conducting) for (UV light)

Is it essential that field region or field A and B overlap? No, it is not essential that they overlap.  We will try to use separation by field response.

Note that the spectrum of light can be separated into different field regions by frequency.  This is the key to separation by field response:  find two regions of the same field type that respond differently to the same substance or substance construction.  This search for different field regions is the primary knowledge gained in this step.  This is where mental effort is required.

Example—Race Car Fender

Many racing vehicles would benefit aerodynamically from aerodynamically shaped fenders.  The problem is that the fenders block visibility of the tires during turns.  The drivers watch the tires to detect the response of the wheels to the track.  The volume of the fender must transmit the image of the wheel but must not transmit the air.[89]  The fender must CONDUCT light in order to see the tires and it must NOT CONDUCT light because it is a fender and light does not pass through it.

Test:  Are both properties (knob settings) directly related to a substance and the way that fields (particularly super-imposed fields) respond to that substance? Yes, the properties of conducting and not conducting are related to the substance of the fender and how light respond to it.  Complete the following, while identifying separate fields or field regions which make these statements true:

It is essential that:

The field response to the (fender) must be (conducting) for (light)

The field response to the (fender) must be (not conducting) for (air pressure)

Is it essential that field region or field A and B overlap? No, light and air pressure are not essential to overlap.  We will try to separate by response of the field.

Example—Pile Driving

The pile needs to be SHARP in order to drive rapidly and it needs to be BLUNT in order to support well.

Test:  Are both properties (knob settings) directly related to a substance and the way that fields (particularly super-imposed fields) respond to that substance?

While sharp and blunt could be indirectly related to the fields, we should have identified that the stress fields need to be directed outward in order to drive the pile rapidly and allow for the soil to be moved aside.  The fields need to be directed downward in order that the soil has nowhere to go.  This allows for high compression forces which support the structure.  Rapidly applied forces would need to somehow push sideways and slowly applied fields would direct the force downwards. 

This, however, is not the question that we are grappling with.  Instead, we are looking at the physical attributes of the object which are blunt and sharp.  Since these do not directly relate to fields, we will not try to separate by Field Response.

Practice—Vibrating Water Wheel

Practice—Storing Almost Protons 

Method387 Response of Fields

The response of (field region A or field A) to (material, coating or structure) is (setting A).  The response of (field region B or field B) to (material, coating or structure) is (setting B).

Explanation

386 Field Response TypesWe have already identified the field regions or fields that must respond differently.  What is left to find is a material, coating or structure which changes the field response of the two regions sufficiently to resolve the contradiction.  Each field region or field must respond differently to the chosen substance, coating or structure. 

Considering different field regions is the most common and preferred method.  Identifying different fields would indicate that the difference in fields was not caught during the cause effect stage.  Since this is possible and made more likely by doing a less thorough job of causal analysis, we allow for considering different fields.  We should remember, however, that the primary and preferred method of separating by Response of Fields is to consider different field regions.

The table to the right shows a variety of substances which can change the way that a field is generated, transmitted and received.

Example—Different Conductive Response—Light Bulb

388 Light BulbThe gas barrier must be CONDUCTING in order to illuminate the work area.  The gas barrier must be NON-CONDUCTING in order to avoid ultraviolet radiation. 

The response of (visible light) to (glass) is (conducting).  The response of (ultraviolet light) to (glass) is (non-conducting).

Example—Different Conductive Response—Spring-Mass-Damper

389 Spring Mass DamperA mechanical vibratory field must CONDUCT through the operating region in order to perform useful work.  It must NOT CONDUCT through the operating region in order to avoid excessive wear.

The response of (low frequency vibration) to (a spring-mass-damper system) is (conducting).  The response of (high frequency vibration) to (a spring-mass-damper system) is (non-conducting).

A spring-mass-damper will selectively pass frequencies lower than the resonant frequency and absorb frequencies higher than the resonant frequency.

Example—Different Conductive Response—Race Car Fender

390 Transparent FenderThe fender must CONDUCT light in order to see the tires and it must NOT CONDUCT light because it is a fender and light does not pass through it.

The response of (an optical field) to (a transparent fender) is (conducting).  The response of (a pressure field) to (a transparent fender) is (non conductive).

Example—Different Gradient Response—Magnetic Material

391 Non Magnetic MaterialsThe response of (a gravitational field) to (a magnetic material) is (a uniform gradient).  The response of (a magnetic field) to (a magnetic material) is (a high or non-uniform gradient).

Example—Different Path Response—Mirror

T392 Mirrorhe response of (x-ray) to (a mirror) is (unaltered movement).  The response of (optical light) to (a mirror) is (reflected altered movement).

Example—Red Color Filter

393 Color FilterThe response of (red light) to (a red filter) is (unaltered transmission or amplitude).  The response of (orange light) to (a red filter) is (reduced transmission or amplitude).

Example—Different Speed Response—Glass

394 GlassThe response of (green light) to (optical glass) is (higher speed).  The response of (blue light) to (optical glass) is (lower speed).

Practice—Vibrating Water Wheel

Practice—Storing Almost Protons 

Separate Between the Substance and the Field

Method395 Separate By Field

The field element associated with the conflict is (a field element).  The substance element associated with the conflict is (a substance element).  The (field element) is (setting A) and the (substance element) is (setting B).  This is accomplished by (architecture).

Explanation

Separating between the substance and the field is the last separation strategy that we will consider.  In this strategy, the substance has one property (knob setting) and the field has the conflicting property.  In order to do this, we have to know the field and substance that is associated with the conflicting properties.  Let’s say that we have two fluids that must be mixed and not mixed.  It is necessary to mix the two fluids in order for the mixture to come to the same temperature.  In this case, the substance and field associated with the conflicting properties is a fluid substance and a thermal field.  Once we have established this, all that is left is to determine which has which conflicting property.

Example—Heat Exchanger

396 Heat ExchangerTwo fluids must be MIXED THOUROUGHLY in order that a temperature sensor can read the correct average temperature of the fluids.  However, they must  be UNMIXED in order that one fluid does not pollute the other.

The field element associated with the conflict is (a thermal field).  The substance element associated with the conflict is (both fluids).  The (thermal field) is (thoroughly mixed) and the (fluids) are (unmixed).  This is accomplished by (a fluid barrier that allows the fluids to be unmixed, but the thermal fields to mix thoroughly.  This is usually referred to as a head exchanger). 

Shown is  a representation of a barrier between two fluids.  The thermal fields can cross, but the fluids cannot.

Example—Rotating Field in an Electric Motor

397 Electric MotorThe field coils must ROTATE in order apply forces to turn the armature.  The field coils must remain STATIONARY in order to keep the complexity of the field coils low.

The field element associated with the conflict is (a magnetic field).  The substance element associated with the conflict is (the field coils).  The (magnetic field) is (rotating) and the (coils) are (stationary).  This is accomplished by (switching on the coils in a predetermined sequence.  The magnetic field direction appears to rotate, depending on the sequence of the switching).

Practice—Two Tining Rake

Practice—The Cover That Wasn’t

Practice—I Just Can’t Stop

Practice—Too Flexible

Practice—Metallic Film

Practice—Special Delivery II

Practice—Construction Lights

Practice—A Slight Polishing

Practice--The Beat Goes On

Compensation

Method

Step 1:  Set a critical property to one setting which solves the main problem.

Step 2:  Look for another knob which can be turned to compensate for the harmful effect created by step 1.

Explanation

Without special recognition, the method of resolving contradictions by compensation is taught in some of Altshuller’s earliest works[90]. Up to this point, we have only considered solving the contradiction by turning the knob to both settings.  It is also possible to resolve the contradiction by setting the critical property to one setting only.  Then we compensate for this property setting by turning another knob.

Example—Raking

Going back to the raking example at the first of the chapter, we can ask what we might do if debris extraction were the main problem with a flexible leaf rake.  Let’s assume that we have already formed the causal analysis shown below.

Step 1:  Set a critical property to one setting which solves the main problem.

The main problem is debris extraction with the leaf rake.  This is because the tines are flexible.  We can solve this problem by making the tines stiff.  Unfortunately, this causes a variety of problems.  (We will only focus on one of these by assuming that the other main function of the rake is debris collection but not on lawns).

398 Rake Compensation

Step 2:  Look for another knob which can be turned to compensate for the harmful effect created by step 1.

We have already noted that debris leakage is also a function of irregularly shaped ground and narrow tine spacing.  We can compensate for the stiff tines by making the ground regular and the tine spacing narrow.

Iterate on Solutions

Method

Rather than abandon any solution, we could continue with this solution path until we are satisfied with the solution.  Each solution path may branch many times with the ensuing iterations.  This is fine.  It is not unusual to have a number of potential solutions.  The intention is to continue evolving the solutions as long as it is practical before making a decision.  It is not unusual to have several ideas to work on at the same time.  In some ways, this creates a state of mind that is very healthy.  Rather than focusing in on one idea and sending it to finishing school, you will greatly increase your chances of success by thinking in terms of solution sets. 

Explanation

You have probably discovered by now that there are many potential ways to resolve a contradiction and there are many potential solution paths to a problem.  Each solution path will bring you to a point where you can visualize an architecture that brings you close to solving your problem.  Unfortunately, this rarely occurs on the first pass.  It is entirely possible that resolving a contradiction will cause other problems.  You may recall the problem of measuring the dimensions of a flexible boot.  One way to overcome this problem is to resolve the contradiction that the boot must be soft in order to perform its function and it must be hard in order to be accurately measured.  One way to resolve this contradiction is to freeze it in liquid nitrogen.  This does, in fact, resolve the immediate contradiction, but a new problem arises.  The material is distorted by freezing.  Note that is problem has nothing to do with the original contradiction.  Now we have a new problem that may seem more difficult than the original problem.

Contradiction Exercises

These exercises are provided to give the reader experience solving contradictions.  While there are known solutions for each of these, applying each of the methods allows for an element of the unknown.

Exercise—The Lesser Weevil

399 The Lesser WeevilIn the war on hunger, Russian scientists were studying the metabolism of the weevil.  This required the scientists to be able to measure the body temperature over a period of time.  Tiny temperature probes were proposed, which through the aid of a microscope could be inserted into the weevil.  The cost of these probes and placement apparatus were prohibitive.  If the Weevil were only larger, we could put a normal thermometer into its mouth opening? The Weevil needs to be LARGE AND SMALLResolve this contradiction using any method.

400 The Lesser Weevil

Exercise—Traffic Light

401 Traffic LightThe lights in a traffic light must eventually FAIL due to the action of the current on the filament and to vibration.  The traffic light must NOT FAIL in order to not cause traffic delays or make the intersection more dangerous.

This is an example of an output contradiction.  Most people would think of this as the Y in the function.  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

402 Traffic Lights Fail

Exercise—A Post and an Outpost

403 A Post and an OutpostFor years your company has produced an aircraft product which fits over two posts on your customer’s aircraft.  Both the position and the diameter of the posts were closely controlled.  Unfortunately, a recent production change by the customer allows a large variance in the distance between the posts.

Now there is no guarantee that the part which you produce will fit over the customers posts.  (The diameter of the posts is still closely held).  The customer is unwilling to change the new production process, but has instead asked you to modify the part so that it will fit snuggly in the application, without rotating.  If the hole clearance is large, they can easily fit over, but they will not be snug.  The Hole Clearance needs to be LOOSE & TIGHT Resolve this contradiction using any method.

404 A Post and an Outpost

Exercise—The Farmer’s Mush

405 The Farmers Mush“I can’t stand cold cereal anymore!”  The farmer says.   “Yes, but it takes a long time to make hot cereal the way that you like it!  I’m not getting up any earlier to make it!”  The farmer's wife complains.

The cereal MUST BE PREPARED in order to nourish the farmer.  It must NOT BE PREPARED in order to not fatigue the farmer’s wife. Resolve this contradiction using any method.

406 The Farmers Mush

Exercise—Controlled Explosions

407 Controlled ExplosionsDuring mining operations it is necessary to precisely time a series of explosions.  One way to do this is to drop a conductive plug down a tube with electrical contacts spaced at precise intervals.  As the conductive weight passes each set of contacts, continuity is established across the contacts and an explosive charge is detonated.  Unfortunately, in order to ensure continuity, the force of the contacts against the conductive weight needs to be high.  This causes the timing to be erratic. Remember, this is a Flintstones timer.  No further electronic circuits are available.  All we have are metallic plugs and contacts. (If we already had magnetic relays, lasers and electronic timing circuits, we wouldn’t be dropping balls).  There should be CONTACT & NO CONTACT. Resolve this contradiction using any method.

408 Controlled Explosions

Exercise—Vibrating Water Wheel

409 Vibrating Water WheelConsider an aluminum water wheel.  Inlet flow strikes the blades after accelerating in the nozzle, transferring energy and momentum to the blade and wheel.  During energy transfer the blade is bent slightly and released causing it to vibrate.

The resulting alternating stresses decrease the life of the turbine blades.  If the pressure forces were eliminated, so would the vibration.  (Assume a constant speed).  The Pressure Forces should be HIGH & ABSENTResolve this contradiction using any method.

410 Vibrating Water Wheel

Exercise—Two Tining Rake

411 Two Tining RakeA common garden rake is somewhat inefficient when raking small debris.  While riding over uneven surfaces, unwanted debris settles into the uneven surface and the tines ride over the top without collecting the debris.  If the tines were more flexible, they could ride over the uneven surfaces like a leaf rake and collect the materials.  On the other hand, if the tines are flexible, then the rake is not useful for extracting embedded debris or for moving earth about.  The Tine Flexibility should be FLEXIBLE & STIFFResolve this contradiction using any method.

412 Two Tining Rake

Exercise—The Cover That Wasn’t

413 Non Existant CoverIn large plating operations, the plating tanks give off large amounts of corrosive gases.  Over the course of time, these gases damage the plating facility and everything in it.  Covering the tanks with non-corrosive covers would greatly reduce the evolution of gases, but a cover slows down production.   The

Plating Tank Needs to be COVERED & UNCOVEREDResolve this contradiction using any method.

414 Non Existant Cover

Exercise—I Just Can’t Stop

415 CoilElectromagnetic coils are used for many applications which require the generation of force.  Magnetic fields generated by the coil and the spool upon which the wire is wound interact with plungers also made of magnetic materials.  Usually, the flow of current to the coil is initiated by throwing a switch which allows electrons to begin flowing.  Such coils are natural inductors, meaning that the flow of electrons begins slowly, like trying to push a heavy object.  When it comes time to turn off the coil, the opposite effect occurs.  The electrons do not want to stop moving, but “bunch up” causing high voltages.  In many applications this causes difficulties such as sparking (deteriorating brushes and switches or causing electromagnetic pulses) or high voltages across other elements. The current path needs to be CONTINUOUS AND INTERRUPTEDResolve this contradiction using any method.

416 Coil

Exercise—Too Flexible

417 Rubber BootVarious diameters of a thin rubber boot (which covers part of a car shift mechanism) must be measured with great accuracy at several points.  Unfortunately, the micrometer which is used deforms the boot during the measurement.  This makes the measurement inaccurate.   How can the boot be measured more accurately?  The Boot Flexibility Needs to be FLEXIBLE & STIFF. Resolve the Resolve this contradiction using any method.

418 Boot

Exercise—Soft Water

419 Soft WaterThe addition of bubbles to diving pools is a good way to keep diving injuries to a minimum.  This is especially true when diving from great heights.  Unfortunately, the diver is no longer buoyant in the water and finds it difficult to surface after a dive.  The Bubbles need to be EXISTENT AND ABSENT.  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

420 Soft Water

Exercise—Free-Fall Plating

421 ShuttleCrystals grown in a micro-gravity environment have unusual properties.  Such an environment is created by objects in free-fall.  A space craft in orbit about the earth achieves this same effect by being in a constant free fall state.  Plating in such a free-fall state might also have unusual properties.  We are a small company which cannot afford a shuttle experiment.  How can we perform such experiments?  A Plating Tank State should be FREE FALL & NOT FREE FALL.  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

422 Shuttle

Exercise—Metallic Film

423 Metallic FilmIn the production of metallic laminates, Thick metallic films are produced by successively rolling the metal between rollers until it reaches the desired thickness.  The resulting film is rolled up into large rolls which are easily manipulated.  When making ultra thin films for laminates, new problems arise.  Because the film is so thin, both the production and manipulation becomes difficult.  The tolerance between rollers becomes unreasonable and handling damage becomes very high.  The laminate must be THICK & ULTRA-THINResolve this contradiction using any method.

424 Metallic Film

Exercise—Special Delivery

425 Special DeliveryDuring war in a third world country, an effective means of gaining support from the local people is to give them much needed supplies such as medicine, food and clothing.  In order to avoid anti-aircraft and small arms fire, the drop plane must fly high.  If the package is dense and compact, it falls with pinpoint accuracy.  A chute opens near the end to keep the contents from being damaged.  Unfortunately, enemy troops on the ground then confiscate the package and hoard the supplies to themselves.

They quickly discover that the contents are useful and look for them.  The Package Contents must be USEFUL AND USELESS  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

426 Special Delivery

Exercise—Special Delivery II

427 Special Delivery IIDuring war in a third world country, an effective means of gaining support from the local people is to give them much needed supplies such as medicine, food and clothing.  In order to avoid anti-aircraft and small arms fire, the drop plane must fly high.  If the package is dense and compact, it falls with pinpoint accuracy.  A chute opens near the end to keep the contents from being damaged.  Unfortunately, enemy troops on the ground then confiscate the package and hoard the supplies to themselves. 

Dropping many packages gets more packages into the hands that need them, but high winds may disperse the drop if they are dropped separately.  The Package Configuration must be COMPACT AND DISPERSED.  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

428 Special Delivery II

Exercise—Super Yacht

429 YachtA small ship building company considers a contract to build a super yacht.  The yacht is so big that only a third will fit into their dock.  “We will need to build this in the open harbor.”  A frustrated engineer says.  “We can’t do that; we need the availability of lifts and tools.”

 The Building Location:  It should be IN THE HARBOR& AT THEDOCK.  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

430 Yacht

Exercise—Eternal Sand

431 Eternal SandInscriptions on grave stones are made by sandblasting the polished stone through a rubber mask.  The mask is attached to the stone by adhesive and later peeled off.  The sand is ejected through a nozzle at high velocity in a pneumatic stream.  The sand can be reused for a time, but must eventually be replenished because it breaks down and becomes too fine for use.  A large operation must replenish the sand often and dispose of the used sand.  The volume of the sand which is used must be LARGE AND SMALL. Resolve this contradiction using any method.

432 Eternal Sand

Exercise—Take Smaller Bites

433 SawA rule of thumb for cutting a piece of metal in a band saw is to have at least three teeth on the piece of metal.  This is because the point loading becomes too high.  This causes bad things to happen such as breaking teeth, blades or rough cutting.  On the other hand, if the teeth are too fine, the point loading on each tooth is too small. In a large production shop where many pieces of metal are cut, it is necessary to cut both thick and thin pieces.   How can we speed up production?  The Tooth Spacing Needs to be FINE & COARSE.  

434 Saw

Exercise—Construction Lights

435 Construction LightsDuring large construction projects, it is desirable to light a work area the size of many football fields.  It would be desirable to have one very large and high light. 

But, doing this is prohibitive because of the large structure that would be required to support the light.   

The construction light needs to be HIGH & LOW.  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

436 Construction Lights

Exercise—Blistering Coils

437 Blistering CoilsProduct on an assembly line must pass under a heating coil in order to be fully treated.  The product that passes under the center part of the coil is fully treated, but the product that passes under the coil at the edge of the conveyor belt is not fully treated.  If the coil spacing was finer, the outer product could be fully treated.  However, the product at the center of the belt is over-heated.  The Coil Spacing should be FINE & COARSE.  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

438 Blistering Coils

Exercise—Radiation Treatment

439 Radiation TreatmentHigh levels of radiation can damage the structure of cells and cause them to cease functioning.  This is useful in the treatment of tumors.  A beam of high energy radiation is focused on the tumor.  After the procedure, the tumor shrinks.  Unfortunately, the tissue surrounding the tumor is also damaged by the high energy radiation. The Radiation Intensity needs to be HIGH AND LOW. Resolve this contradiction using any method.

440 Radiation Treatment

Exercise—Blistering Coils II

441 Blistering Coils IIProduct on an assembly line must pass under a heating coil in order to be fully treated.  The product that passes under the center part of the coil is fully treated, but the product that passes under the coil at the edge of the conveyor belt is not fully treated.  If the coil length is much longer, the product will be uniformly heated as it passes under the coil.  Unfortunately, a lot of energy is wasted.

The Coil Length should be EXCESSIVE & THE WIDTH OF THE BELT.  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

442 Blistering Coils II

Exercise—Blistering Coils III

441 Blistering Coils IIProduct on an assembly line must pass under a heating coil in order to be fully treated.  The product that passes under the center part of the coil is fully treated, but the product that passes under the coil at the edge of the conveyor belt is not fully treated.  If the product speed were slower at the edges, the product will be uniformly heated as it passes under the coil. 

If the product is slowed down, the center pieces will be over heated. The belt speed should be SLOW & FASTResolve this contradiction using any method.

443 Blistering Coils III

Exercise—Molecular Wind Pump

444 Molecular Wind PumpA molecular wind is created by applying a very high voltage source to a very sharp object.  The electrostatic field gradient at the tip is very high.  Any stray electrons in the gas (knocked off by a stray gamma ray for example) are accelerated by the field and collide with other molecules causing an avalanche of charges seen as a “corona discharge”. The resulting ionized molecules are repelled from the charged object, causing a molecular wind.  The wind is localized to the point and could be used to pump rarified gas, except that the movement of the gas is so small.

The Local Gas Movement should be SMALL & LARGE.  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

445 Molecular Wind Pump

Exercise—Fish to the Rescue

L446 Fish to Rescueike most large predators, a shark will follow its prey in close pursuit until the smaller prey exhausts its energy.  Although the prey may be more nimble, it cannot outrun its larger foe forever.  If the smaller fish could dodge and dart forever, it could easily outmaneuver the larger shark.  The Fish should have INFINITE ENDURANCE in order to outrun the shark and NORMAL ENDURANCE because that is how small fish are.  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

447 Fish to Rescue

Exercise—A Slight Polishing

448 Slight PolishingYour company polishes the edges of glass plates.  Thousands of plates are polished each day.  The edges of the glass plates are polished on a fast moving belt covered with abrasive materials.  One day an order comes in for polishing glass plates which are only .010 inches thick.  The first attempts to polish the edges are catastrophic. The edges are chipped so badly that the plates are unusable.  Due to the high volume of plates which are normally processed, it is not practical to change the machinery.  The problem would go away if the plates were THICK, but they only come THIN.  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

449 slight polishing

Exercise—Blood Brain Barrier

450 Blood Brain BarrierSome medicines need to be delivered to the brain, but cannot cross the blood-brain barrier.  Molecules that pass easily are lipids and sugars.  How can these medicines be delivered across the blood-brain barrier?  The composition should be LIPID & NON-LIPID.  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

451 Blood Brain Barrier

Exercise—A Limit to Cell Phones

452 Cell Phone CoverCell phone cases have become increasingly thinner.  This reduces the weight and cost of raw materials.  The traditional method of production has been injection molding. But, injection molding has reached several limits.  The pressures required to inject into increasingly narrow passages is very high.  Additionally, the cases are required to do more.  They must be as rigid as metal and conductive like metal to reduce electromagnetic interference, yet they should be made from light moldable materials like plastic.

The cases should be METALLIC & PLASTIC.  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

453 Cell Phone Cover

Exercise—Ugly Cookies

454 Ugly CookiesA production line for gourmet cookies has just been brought on line and has been in production for several days.  The plant manager’s wife inspects the cookies and discovers that they do not look like her home-made recipe.  They are well shaped on one side but malformed on the other.  “The equipment will have to be retooled to make them bake right” the wife says.  “It’s too late!” The plant manager says. “We have produced ten tons and the cookie introduction is next week at the Convention.”  The cookies should be MALFORMED & WELL SHAPED.  Resolve this contradiction using any method.

455 Ugly Cookies

Exercise—What’s Up Dock

456 Whats up dock“We’ll make a fortune” the small investor said.  “When they build the houses around this lake, everyone will want a place to dock their boats and we got the last parcel on the lake”.  “Yes, but it is too small to store many boats” his wife complained. “And we are not allowed to build the dock out more than 20 yards”.  “I know” she continued “We can fill every available square foot with dock and boats!”  “We still will not be able to store enough boats to make money” the investor said after making a few calculations.  The Dock should be SMALL & LARGEResolve this contradiction using any method.

457 Whats up dock

Exercise—Storing Almost Protons 

458 Storing HydrogenHydrogen is very difficult to store as a gas.  This is primarily because of the high gas constant.  A small mass of gas can exert very high pressures when constrained to a small volume.  In order to reduce the stresses in the vessel walls, the walls are made very thick.  The resulting vessel weight is high (95%) compared to the weight of the hydrogen (5%).  If only the pressure forces were not so high, the vessel walls could be made much thinner. The Pressure Forces should be LOW & HIGHResolve this contradiction using any method.

459 Storing Hydrogen

Exercise—Log Jam

460 Log JamEvery few hours, a train enters the depot with several cars full of logs.  It is the job of the inspector to measure each log diameter.  Unfortunately the train does not stay long.  So far, the problem has been solved by hiring many inspectors. 

The inspectors have nothing to do between trains and sit for hours.  The productivity of the inspectors is low.  If the logs would just stay at the station for a long time, one inspector could do the job and would be fully occupied.

The Stopping Time Needs to be LONG & SHORT. Resolve this contradiction using any method.

461 Log Jam

Exercise—the Beat Goes On

462 Beat Goes OnHeart surgery is sometimes required for battlefield wounds to the heart.  Small pieces of shrapnel become lodged in the heart muscle.  Usually, the heart is stopped, temporarily, to repair it since it is very difficult to operate on a beating heart.  This stoppage of blood flow is very traumatic for the rest of the body which may be badly damaged.  If it were possible to operate on the beating heart, there would likely be more survivors.  The Heart Movement must be BEATING & STILLResolve this contradiction using any method.

463 Beat Goes On

References

[1] Inventive Principle #3—Local Quality:  Transition from homogeneous to heterogeneous structure of an object or outside environment (action).  Different parts of an object should carry out different functions.  Each part of an object should be placed under  conditions that are most favorable for its operation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[2] Separation in Time appears in Creativity as an Exact Science-The Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems by G.S. Altshuller.  Gordon and Breach. It can be found in the appendix discussing ARIZ 77

[3] Inventive Principle #24—Mediator:  Use an intermediary object to transfer or carry out an action.  Temporarily connect the original object to one that is easily removed.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[4] Inventive Principle #36—Phase Transition:  Using the phenomena of phase change (i.e., a change in volume, the liberation or absorption of heat, etc.).  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 289.

[5] Inventive Principle #1—Segmentation:  Divide an object into independent parts. Make an object sectional (for easy assembly or disassembly).  Increase the degree of an object's segmentation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[6] Inventive Principle #15—Dynamicity:  Characteristics of an object or outside environment, must be altered to provide optimal performance at each stage of an operation.  If an object is immobile, make it mobile. Make it interchangeable.  Divide an object into elements capable of changing their position relative to each other.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[7] Separation in Space appears in Creativity as an Exact Science-The Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems by G.S. Altshuller published by Gordon and Breach. It can be found in the appendix discussing ARIZ 77

[8] Inventive Principle #2—Extraction:  (Extracting, Retrieving, Removing).  Extract the "disturbing" part or property from an object.  Extract only the necessary part or property from an object.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[9] Inventive Principle #3—Local Quality:  Transition from homogeneous to heterogeneous structure of an object or outside environment (action).  Different parts of an object should carry out different functions.  Each part of an object should be placed under  conditions that are most favorable for its operation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[10] Separation between the Parts and the Whole appears in Creativity as an Exact Science-The Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems by G.S. Altshuller published by Gordon and Breach. It can be found in the appendix discussing ARIZ 77 Page 292

[11] Inventive Principle #24—Mediator:  Use an intermediary object to transfer or carry out an action.  Temporarily connect the original object to one that is easily removed.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[12] Inventive Principle #1—Segmentation:  Divide an object into independent parts. Make an object sectional (for easy assembly or disassembly).  Increase the degree of an object's segmentation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[13]  Inventive Principle #5—Consolidation:  Consolidate in space homogeneous objects, or objects destined for contiguous operations.  Consolidate in time homogeneous or contiguous  operations.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[14] Inventive Principle #8—Counterweight:  Compensate for the weight of an object by combining it with another object that provides a lifting force.  Compensate for the weight of an object with aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces influenced by the outside environment.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[15] A version of this approach can be found in Creativity as an Exact Science-The Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems by G.S. Altshuller.  Gordon and Breach in the appendix which explains ARIZ 77.

[16] Separation in Time appears in Creativity as an Exact Science-The Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems by G.S. Altshuller.  Gordon and Breach. It can be found in the appendix discussing ARIZ 77

[17] Inventive Principle #24—Mediator:  Use an intermediary object to transfer or carry out an action.  Temporarily connect the original object to one that is easily removed.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[18] Inventive Principle #1—Segmentation:  Divide an object into independent parts. Make an object sectional (for easy assembly or disassembly).  Increase the degree of an object's segmentation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[19] Inventive Principle #15—Dynamicity:  Characteristics of an object or outside environment, must be altered to provide optimal performance at each stage of an operation.  If an object is immobile, make it mobile. Make it interchangeable.  Divide an object into elements capable of changing their position relative to each other.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[20] Inventive Principle #10—Prior Action:  Perform required changes to an object completely or partially in advance.  Place objects in advance so that they can go into action immediately from the most convenient location.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[21] Inventive Principle #10—Prior Action:  Perform required changes to an object completely or partially in advance.  Place objects in advance so that they can go into action immediately from the most convenient location.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[22] Inventive Principle #16—Partial or Excessive Action:  If it is difficult to obtain 100% of a desired effect, achieve more or less of the desired effect.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

 

[24] Inventive Principle #16—Partial or Excessive Action:  If it is difficult to obtain 100% of a desired effect, achieve more or less of the desired effect.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[25] STANDARD 1-1-6. If a minimum (measured, optimal) effect of action is required, but it is difficult or impossible to provide it under the conditions of the problem, use a maximum action, while the excess of the action is then removed. Excess of a substance is removed by a field, while excess of a field is removed by a substance. Example: To paint a part accurately, the part first loaded into a container with the paint, and then subjected to rotation. Excess of paint is removed due to centrifugal forces.

[26] Larry Miller—Email Feb 10, 2012

[27] Inventive Principle #9—Prior Counteraction:  Preload counter-tension to an object to compensate excessive and undesirable stress.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[28] Larry Miller Feb 10, 2012 email concerning software examples of TRIZ concepts.

[29] Larry Miller Feb 10th 2012—Email describing software examples of resolving contradictions.

[30] Inventive Principle #8—Counterweight:  Compensate for the weight of an object by combining it with another object that provides a lifting force.  Compensate for the weight of an object with aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces influenced by the outside environment.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[31] Inventive Principle #32—Changing the color:  Change the color of an object or its environment.  Change the degree of translucency of an object or its environment.  Use color additives to observe an object or process which is difficult to see.  If such additives are already used, employ luminescent traces or trace atoms.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 289.

[32] Inventive Principle #39—Inert Environment:  Replace a normal environment with an inert one.  Introduce a neutral substance or additives into an object.  Carry out the process in a vacuum.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 289.

[33] Inventive Principle #36—Phase Transition:  Using the phenomena of phase change (i.e., a change in volume, the liberation or absorption of heat, etc.).  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 289.

[34] STANDARD 5-3-1. Efficiency of the use of a substance without introducing other substances can be improved by changing its phase.

STANDARD 5-3-2. "Dual" properties are provided by using substances capable of converting from one phase to another according to operating conditions.

STANDARD 5-3-3. Efficiency of a system can be improved by the use of physical phenomena accompanying a phase transition.  Notes:  Structure of a substance, density, thermal conductivity, etc. also change along with the change of aggregate state during all types of phase transitions. In addition, during phase transitions, energy may be released or absorbed.

STANDARD 5-3-4. "Dual" properties of a system are provided by replacing a single-phase state of the substance with a dual-phase state.

STANDARD 5-3-5. Efficiency of systems obtained as a result of replacing a substance’s single- phase state with a dual-phase state can be improved by introducing interaction (physical or chemical) between parts (phases) of the system.

STANDARD 5-4-1. If an object is to be alternating between different physical states, the transition is performed by the object itself using reversible physical transformations, e.g. phase transitions, ionization-recombination, dissociation-association, etc.  Note:  A dynamic balance providing for the process self-adjustment or stabilization may be maintained in the dual-phase state.

[35]  Inventive Principle #19—Periodic Action:  Replace a continuous action with a periodic one (impulse).  If the action is already periodic, change its frequency.  Use pauses between impulses to provide additional action.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[36] Inventive Principle #29—Pneumatic or Hydraulic Constructions:  Replace solid parts of an object with a gas or liquid.  These parts can now use air or water for inflation, or use pneumatic or hydrostatic cushions. Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 289.

[37] Inventive Principle #24—Mediator:  Use an intermediary object to transfer or carry out an action.  Temporarily connect the original object to one that is easily removed.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[38] Inventive Principle #27—Dispose:  Replace an expensive object with a cheap one, compromising other properties (i.e., longevity).  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[39] Inventive Principle #34—Rejecting and Regenerating Parts:  After completing its function, or becoming useless, an element of an object is rejected (discarded, dissolved, evaporated, etc.) or modified during its work process.  Used-up parts of an object should be restored during its work.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 289.

[40] Inventive Principle #7—Nesting (Matrioshka):   One object is placed inside another. That object is placed inside a third one. And so on.  An object passes through a cavity in another object.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[41] Inventive Principle #1—Segmentation:  Divide an object into independent parts. Make an object sectional (for easy assembly or disassembly).  Increase the degree of an object's segmentation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[42] Inventive Principle #27—Dispose:  Replace an expensive object with a cheap one, compromising other properties (i.e., longevity).  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[43] Inventive Principle #1—Segmentation:  Divide an object into independent parts. Make an object sectional (for easy assembly or disassembly).  Increase the degree of an object's segmentation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[44] Inventive Principle #7—Nesting (Matrioshka):   One object is placed inside another. That object is placed inside a third one. And so on.  An object passes through a cavity in another object.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[45] Inventive Principle #8—Counterweight:  Compensate for the weight of an object by combining it with another object that provides a lifting force.  Compensate for the weight of an object with aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces influenced by the outside environment.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[46] Inventive Principle #2—Extraction:  (Extracting, Retrieving, Removing).  Extract the "disturbing" part or property from an object.  Extract only the necessary part or property from an object.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[47] Inventive Principle #15—Dynamicity:  Characteristics of an object or outside environment, must be altered to provide optimal performance at each stage of an operation.  If an object is immobile, make it mobile. Make it interchangeable.  Divide an object into elements capable of changing their position relative to each other.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[48] Inventive Principle #3—Local Quality:  Transition from homogeneous to heterogeneous structure of an object or outside environment (action).  Different parts of an object should carry out different functions.  Each part of an object should be placed under  conditions that are most favorable for its operation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[49] Inventive Principle #1—Segmentation:  Divide an object into independent parts. Make an object sectional (for easy assembly or disassembly).  Increase the degree of an object's segmentation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[50] Inventive Principle #7—Nesting (Matrioshka):   One object is placed inside another. That object is placed inside a third one. And so on.  An object passes through a cavity in another object.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[51] Inventive Principle #26—Copying:  A simplified and inexpensive copy should be used in place of a fragile original or an object that is inconvenient to operate.  If a visible optical copy is used, replace it with an infrared or ultraviolet copies.  Replace an object (or system of objects) with their optical image. The image can then be reduced or enlarged.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[52] Separating Gradually may be construed to have appeared in Creativity as an Exact Science-The Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems by G.S. Altshuller published by Gordon and Breach. It can be found in the appendix discussing ARIZ 77 Page 292  It is described as “using transitory states in which contradictory properties either coexist or appear alternately.  While this is not a great description and does not appear to anticipate  such principles as repeated use, it does allow for transitory appearance of both conflicting properties.

[53] Inventive Principle #34—Rejecting and Regenerating Parts:  After completing its function, or becoming useless, an element of an object is rejected (discarded, dissolved, evaporated, etc.) or modified during its work process.  Used-up parts of an object should be restored during its work.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 289.

[54] Inventive Principle #14—Spheroidality:  Replace linear parts with curved parts, flat surfaces with spherical surfaces, and cube shapes with ball shapes.  Use rollers, balls, spirals.  Replace linear motion with rotational motion ; utilize centrifugal force.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[55] Inventive Principle #27—Dispose:  Replace an expensive object with a cheap one, compromising other properties (i.e., longevity).  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[56] Inventive Principle #1—Segmentation:  Divide an object into independent parts. Make an object sectional (for easy assembly or disassembly).  Increase the degree of an object's segmentation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[57] Inventive Principle #7—Nesting (Matrioshka):   One object is placed inside another. That object is placed inside a third one. And so on.  An object passes through a cavity in another object.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[58] Inventive Principle #7—Nesting (Matrioshka):   One object is placed inside another. That object is placed inside a third one. And so on.  An object passes through a cavity in another object.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[59] Separation in Space appears in Creativity as an Exact Science-The Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems by G.S. Altshuller published by Gordon and Breach. It can be found in the appendix discussing ARIZ 77

[60] Inventive Principle #3—Local Quality:  Transition from homogeneous to heterogeneous structure of an object or outside environment (action).  Different parts of an object should carry out different functions.  Each part of an object should be placed under  conditions that are most favorable for its operation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[61] Inventive Principle #2—Extraction:  (Extracting, Retrieving, Removing).  Extract the "disturbing" part or property from an object.  Extract only the necessary part or property from an object.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[62] Inventive Principle #1—Segmentation:  Divide an object into independent parts. Make an object sectional (for easy assembly or disassembly).  Increase the degree of an object's segmentation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[63] Inventive Principle #40—Composite Materials:  Replace homogeneous materials with composite ones.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 289.

[64] Inventive Principle #7—Nesting (Matrioshka):   One object is placed inside another. That object is placed inside a third one. And so on.  An object passes through a cavity in another object.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[65] Inventive Principle #24—Mediator:  Use an intermediary object to transfer or carry out an action.  Temporarily connect the original object to one that is easily removed.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[66] Inventive Principle #26—Copying:  A simplified and inexpensive copy should be used in place of a fragile original or an object that is inconvenient to operate.  If a visible optical copy is used, replace it with an infrared or ultraviolet copies.  Replace an object (or system of objects) with their optical image. The image can then be reduced or enlarged.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[67] Inventive Principle #8—Counterweight:  Compensate for the weight of an object by combining it with another object that provides a lifting force.  Compensate for the weight of an object with aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces influenced by the outside environment.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[68] Separation between the Parts and the Whole appears in Creativity as an Exact Science-The Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems by G.S. Altshuller published by Gordon and Breach. It can be found in the appendix discussing ARIZ 77 Page 292

[69] STANDARD 3-1-5. Efficiency of bi- and poly-systems can be improved by distributing incompatible properties among the system and its parts. This is achieved by using a two-level structure in which the system as a whole has a certain property A, while its parts (particles) have property anti-A.  Example: A working part of a vice is made of segmented plates capable of moving relatively each other. Parts of various shapes can be gripped quickly.

[70] Inventive Principle #1—Segmentation:  Divide an object into independent parts. Make an object sectional (for easy assembly or disassembly).  Increase the degree of an object's segmentation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[71] Inventive Principle #8—Counterweight:  Compensate for the weight of an object by combining it with another object that provides a lifting force.  Compensate for the weight of an object with aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces influenced by the outside environment.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[72] Inventive Principle #1—Segmentation:  Divide an object into independent parts. Make an object sectional (for easy assembly or disassembly).  Increase the degree of an object's segmentation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[73] Inventive Principle #5—Consolidation:  Consolidate in space homogeneous objects, or objects destined for contiguous operations.  Consolidate in time homogeneous or contiguous  operations.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[74] Inventive Principle #1—Segmentation:  Divide an object into independent parts. Make an object sectional (for easy assembly or disassembly).  Increase the degree of an object's segmentation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[75] Inventive Principle #7—Nesting (Matrioshka):   One object is placed inside another. That object is placed inside a third one. And so on.  An object passes through a cavity in another object.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[76] Inventive Principle #15—Dynamicity:  Characteristics of an object or outside environment, must be altered to provide optimal performance at each stage of an operation.  If an object is immobile, make it mobile. Make it interchangeable.  Divide an object into elements capable of changing their position relative to each other.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[77] Inventive Principle #24—Mediator:  Use an intermediary object to transfer or carry out an action.  Temporarily connect the original object to one that is easily removed.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[78] Inventive Principle #7—Nesting (Matrioshka):   One object is placed inside another. That object is placed inside a third one. And so on.  An object passes through a cavity in another object.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[79] Inventive Principle #1—Segmentation:  Divide an object into independent parts. Make an object sectional (for easy assembly or disassembly).  Increase the degree of an object's segmentation.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[80] Inventive Principle #11—Cushion in Advance:  Compensate for the relatively low reliability of an object with emergency measures prepared in advance.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[81] Inventive Principle #17—Transition Into a New Dimension:  Transition one-dimensional movement, or placement, of objects into two- dimensional ; two-dimensional to three- dimensional, etc. Utilize multi-level composition of objects.  Incline an object, or place it on its side.  Utilize the opposite side of a given surface.  Project optical lines onto neighboring areas, or onto the reverse side, of an object. Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[82] Inventive Principle #8—Counterweight:  Compensate for the weight of an object by combining it with another object that provides a lifting force.  Compensate for the weight of an object with aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces influenced by the outside environment.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 287.

[83] Inventive Principle #15—Dynamicity:  Characteristics of an object or outside environment, must be altered to provide optimal performance at each stage of an operation.  If an object is immobile, make it mobile. Make it interchangeable.  Divide an object into elements capable of changing their position relative to each other.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 288.

[84] Inventive Principle #32—Changing the color:  Change the color of an object or its environment.  Change the degree of translucency of an object or its environment.  Use color additives to observe an object or process which is difficult to see.  If such additives are already used, employ luminescent traces or trace atoms.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 289.

[85] Inventive Principle #32—Changing the color:  Change the color of an object or its environment.  Change the degree of translucency of an object or its environment.  Use color additives to observe an object or process which is difficult to see.  If such additives are already used, employ luminescent traces or trace atoms.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 289.

[86] Krishnamurthy Vaidyanathan—email dated April 11, 2012

[87] Krishnamurthy Vaidyanathan—email dated April 11, 2012

[88] Inventive Principle #32—Changing the color:  Change the color of an object or its environment.  Change the degree of translucency of an object or its environment.  Use color additives to observe an object or process which is difficult to see.  If such additives are already used, employ luminescent traces or trace atoms.  Genrich Altshuller, The Innovation Algorithm page 289.

[89] The Innovation Algorithm by Genrich Altshuller page 99

[90] An Example of Compensation can be found on page 34 of The Innovation Algorithm by G.S. Altshuller, Technical Innovation center.  First Edition 1999.  What is described is a diving mask that distorts the vision of the diver due to the change of index of refraction between the water and glass which have a refractive index around 1.5 and the air which has a refractive index around 1.0.  (Think about the last time that you used diving goggles with a flat glass or plastic plate.)  The refractive index is the parameter which drives the distortion which is the problem that needs to be overcome.  A second parameter is found that compensates for the difference in refractive index and that is the curvature of the glass.  The curvature of the glass can be used to compensate and even correct the vision of the diver which may have imperfect vision when not underwater.  (Many divers try to wear their normal corrective glasses by wedging them into diving goggles.  Unfortunately, this, alone, does not change the original distortion of the diving goggles.)

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